Latest research in football - week 25 - 2023

As previous literature updates, I have performed a PubCrawler search looking for football articles in NCBI Medline (PubMed) and GenBank databases. 


Following studies were retrieved for this week:

#1 A sportomics soccer investigation unveils an exercise-induced shift in tyrosine metabolism leading to hawkinsinuria

Reference: Front Nutr. 2023 Jun 13;10:1169188. doi: 10.3389/fnut.2023.1169188. eCollection 2023.

Authors: Thássia Casado Lima França, Renan Muniz-Santos, Luiz Carlos Caetano, Gustavo H M F Souza, Henrique Fonseca Goulart, Marcio Assis, Altamiro Bottino, Adriana Bassini, Antonio Euzébio Goulart Santana, Eduardo Seixas Prado, L C Cameron

Download link:

Summary: Tyrosine metabolism has an intense role in the synthesis of neurotransmitters. Our study used an untargeted, sportomics-based analysis of urine samples to investigate changes in metabolism during a soccer match in 30 male junior professional soccer players. Samples were collected before and after the match and analyzed using liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Results showed significant changes in tyrosine metabolism. Exercise caused a downregulation of the homogentisate metabolites 4-maleylacetoacetate and succinylacetone to 20% (p = 4.69E-5) and 16% (p = 4.25E-14), respectively. 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate, a homogentisate precursor, was found to be upregulated by 26% (p = 7.20E-3). The concentration of hawkinsin and its metabolite 4-hydroxycyclohexyl acetate increased ~six-fold (p = 1.49E-6 and p = 9.81E-6, respectively). Different DOPA metabolism pathways were also affected by exercise. DOPA and dopaquinone increased four-to six-fold (p = 5.62E-14 and p = 4.98E-13, respectively). 3-Methoxytyrosine, indole-5,6-quinone, and melanin were downregulated from 1 to 25%, as were dopamine and tyramine (decreasing to up to 5% or 80%; p= 5.62E-14 and p = 2.47E-2, respectively). Blood TCO2 decreased as well as urinary glutathione and glutamate (40% and 10% respectively) associated with a two-fold increase in pyroglutamate. Our study found unexpected similarities between exercise-induced changes in metabolism and the inherited disorder Hawkinsinuria, suggesting a possible transient condition called exercise-induced hawkinsinuria (EIh). Additionally, our research suggests changes in DOPA pathways may be involved. Our findings suggest that soccer exercise could be used as a model to search for potential countermeasures in Hawkinsinuria and other tyrosine metabolism disorders.



#2 Acute traumatic patellar tendon rupture and simultaneous fracture of the tibial tubercle avulsion in a premature soccer player

Reference: Trauma Case Rep. 2023 Jun 8;47:100876. doi: 10.1016/j.tcr.2023.100876. eCollection 2023 Oct.

Authors: Constantin Mayer, Louisa Nolte-Boenigk, Matthias Stanjek, Anika Klingler, Marcus Jäger

Download link:

Summary: Bone-tendon junctions are prone for acute trauma due to its structural weakness, especially in premature males. For the lower limb, the most eminent area is the tibial tubercle apophysis. Osgood Schlatter disease (OSD) due to repetitive trauma or epiphyseal fractures due to one trauma is well described in literature and known in pediatric practice. Traumatic distal patella tendon ruptures on the other hand are a typical injury of the knee extensor mechanism of mature patients in the fourth decade. Here, the very rare condition of fracture of the tibial tubercle apophysis with simultaneous rupture of the distal patellar tendon of a 15 year old soccer player with previous history of OSD is presented including a review of the recent literature.



#3 Effects of Nutrition Interventions on Athletic Performance in Soccer Players: A Systematic Review

Reference: Life (Basel). 2023 May 28;13(6):1271. doi: 10.3390/life13061271.

Authors: Ines Aguinaga-Ontoso, Sara Guillen-Aguinaga, Laura Guillen-Aguinaga, Rosa Alas-Brun, Francisco Guillen-Grima

Download link:

Summary: More than 270 million participants and 128,893 professional players play soccer. Although UEFA recommendations for nutrition in elite football exist, implementing these guidelines among professional and semiprofessional soccer players remains suboptimal, emphasizing the need for targeted and individualized nutritional strategies to improve adherence to established recommendations. We conducted a comprehensive search in PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and clinical trial registers. Inclusion criteria focused on professional or semiprofessional soccer players, nutrition or diet interventions, performance improvement outcomes, and randomized clinical trial study types. We assessed quality using the Risk of Bias 2 (RoB 2) tool. We identified 16 eligible articles involving 310 participants. No nutritional interventions during the recovery period effectively improved recovery. However, several performance-based interventions showed positive effects, such as tart cherry supplementation, raw pistachio nut kernels, bicarbonate and mineral ingestion, creatine supplementation, betaine consumption, symbiotic supplements, and a high-carbohydrate diet. These interventions influenced various aspects of soccer performance, including endurance, speed, agility, strength, power, explosiveness, and anaerobic capacity. Specific strategies, such as solutions with bicarbonate and minerals, high carbohydrate diets, and supplements like creatine, betaine, and tart cherry, can enhance the performance of professional soccer players. These targeted nutritional interventions may help optimize performance and provide the competitive edge required in professional soccer. We did not find any dietary interventions that could enhance recovery.



#4 Lower Limb Anthropometric Profiling in Professional Female Soccer Players: A Proof of Concept for Asymmetry Assessment Using Video Analysis

Reference: Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2023 Jun 14;20(12):6124. doi: 10.3390/ijerph20126124.

Authors: Kristian J Weaver, Nicola Relph

Download link:

Summary: The objective was to evaluate the clinical joint and limb measures in professional female soccer players. The study was a cross-sectional observational design. It was a preseason clinical setting. The inclusion criteria were outfield professional female soccer players, based in the UK, competing in the highest English league. The exclusion criteria included players who had had surgery in the last six months or had missed a single training session or match due to injury in the previous three months. In terms of the outcome measures, the dependent variables were the true limb length, ankle dorsiflexion, knee flexion and extension, hip flexion, extension, internal rotation and external rotation, and straight leg raise measured using video analysis software. Additionally, passive clinical knee and ankle stability tests were conducted. The independent variables were leg dominance and playing position (defender, midfielder, and attacker). For the results, all the ROM measurements demonstrated limb symmetry (p = 0.621). However, there were significant main effects of the playing position on the ankle dorsiflexion and hip internal rotation, with defenders demonstrating a significantly reduced range of motion in comparison to midfielders and attackers. A notable finding from the bilateral passive stability measures was that 38.3% of players exhibited ankle talar inversion instability when using a talar tilt. In conclusion, bilateral differences do not appear to be apparent in this population; however, positional differences may occur in the ankle and hip range of motion measures. A high proportion of this population may present with passive ankle inversion instability. Future research should consider whether this leads to a higher risk of injury in this population.



#5 Agreement between Force Platform and Smartphone Application-Derived Measures of Vertical Jump Height in Youth Grassroots Soccer Players

Reference: Sports (Basel). 2023 Jun 13;11(6):117. doi: 10.3390/sports11060117.

Authors: Jason Tallis, Rhys O Morris, Michael J Duncan, Emma L J Eyre, Lucas Guimaraes-Ferreira

Download link:

Summary: Given the importance of vertical jump assessments as a performance benchmarking tool, the assessment of neuromuscular function and indicator of health status, accurate assessment is essential. This study compared countermovement jump (CMJ) height assessed using MyJump2 (JHMJ) to force-platform-derived jump height calculated from time in the air (JHTIA) and take-off velocity (JHTOV) in youth grassroots soccer players. Thirty participants (Age: 8.7 ± 0.42 yrs; 9 females) completed bilateral CMJs on force platforms whilst jump height was simultaneously evaluated using MyJump2. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), Standard error of measurement (SEM), coefficient of variance (CV) and Bland-Altman analysis were used to compare performance of MyJump2 to force-platform-derived measures of CMJ height. The median jump height was 15.5 cm. Despite a high level of agreement between JHTIA and JHTOV (ICC = 0.955), CV (6.6%), mean bias (1.33 ± 1.62 cm) and 95% limits of agreement (LoA -1.85-4.51 cm) were greater than in other comparisons. JHMJ performed marginally better than JHTIA when compared to JHTOV (ICC = 0.971; 95% CI's = 0.956-0.981; SEM = 0.3 cm; CV = 5.7%; mean bias = 0.36 ± 1.61 cm; LoA = -3.52-2.80 cm). Irrespective of method, jump height did not differ between males and females (p > 0.381; r < 0.093), and the comparison between assessment tools was not affected by sex. Given low jump heights achieved in youth, JHTIA and JHMJ should be used with caution. JHTOV should be used to guarantee accuracy in the calculation of jump height.



#6 Accumulated Workload Differences in Collegiate Women's Soccer: Starters versus Substitutes

Reference: J Funct Morphol Kinesiol. 2023 Jun 12;8(2):78. doi: 10.3390/jfmk8020078.

Authors: Maxine Furtado Mesa, Jeffrey R Stout, Michael J Redd, David H Fukuda

Download link:

Summary: The purpose of this study was to estimate the workloads accumulated by collegiate female soccer players during a competitive season and to compare the workloads of starters and substitutes. Data from 19 college soccer players (height: 1.58 ± 0.06 m; body mass: 61.57 ± 6.88 kg) were extracted from global positioning system (GPS)/heart rate (HR) monitoring sensors to quantify workload throughout the 2019 competitive season. Total distance, distance covered in four speed zones, accelerations, and time spent in five HR zones were examined as accumulated values for training sessions, matches, and the entire season. Repeated-measures ANOVA and Student's t tests were used to determine the level of differences between starter and substitute workloads. Seasonal accumulated total distance (p < 0.001), sprints (≥19.00 km/h; p < 0.001), and high-speed distance (≥15.00 km/h; p = 0.005) were significantly greater for starters than substitutes. Accumulated training load (p = 0.08) and training load per minute played in matches (p = 0.08) did not differ between starters and substitutes. Substitutes had similar accumulated workload profiles during training sessions but differed in matches from starters. Coaches and practitioners should pursue strategies to monitor the differences in workload between starters and substitutes.



#7 Muscle Strength and Hamstrings to Quadriceps Ratio in Young Soccer Players: A Cross-Sectional Study

Reference: J Funct Morphol Kinesiol. 2023 May 23;8(2):70. doi: 10.3390/jfmk8020070.

Authors: Athanasios Mandroukas, Yiannis Michailidis, Thomas Metaxas

Download link:

Summary: The aim of the present study was to examine and compare the concentric isokinetic peak torque of the knee flexors and extensors muscles, as well as their ratio, in young soccer players. Two hundred and sixty-five (n = 265) young soccer players were divided into five groups: U-12 (n = 43, mean age 11.5 ± 0.4 yrs), U-14 (n = 63, mean age 13.6 ± 0.3 yrs), U-16 (n = 64, mean age 15.4 ± 0.5 yrs), U-18 (n = 53, mean age 17.5 ± 0.4 yrs) and U-20 (n = 42, mean age 19.3 ± 0.6 yrs). Three maximal voluntary isokinetic leg extensions and flexions at angular velocities of 60, 180, and 300°·s-1, and H:Q strength ratio was determined. The largest H:Q strength ratio for all ages, with the exception of age group U-12, appears at a slow angular velocity of 60°·s-1, and the smallest H:Q ratio at a fast angular velocity of 300°·s-1. In age group U-12, at an angular velocity of 60°·s-1, the strength of the quadriceps muscle was almost twice the strength of the hamstrings. The H:Q strength ratio was smaller in age group U-12 and greater in group U-20. In age group U-12, the greatest H:Q strength ratio appeared at an angular velocity of 180°·s-1, while in the other age groups, it appeared at 60°·s-1. Strength training of hamstring muscles remains inadequate across ages. The small H:Q strength ratio in younger ages and the large H:Q ratio in older ages suggest that high-intensity training may increase the H:Q strength ratio, which, in turn, may protect the knee joint from excessive and burdensome loads.



#8 Study State Dynamics of Team Passing Networks in Soccer Games

Reference: J Sports Sci. 2023 Jun 27;1-15. doi: 10.1080/02640414.2023.2229154. Online ahead of print.

Authors: Shun Cao

Summary: Complex networks have been widely used in studying collective behaviours in soccer sports, such as examining tactical strategies, recognizing team characteristics, and discovering topological determinants for high team performance. The passing network of a team evolves and displays different temporal patterns, that are strongly linked to team status, tactical strategies, attacking/defending transitions, etc. Nevertheless, existing research has not illuminated the state dynamics of team passing networks, whereas similar methods have been extensively used in examining the dynamical brain networks constructed from human brain neuroimage data. This study aims to investigate the state dynamics of team passing networks in soccer sports. The introduced method incorporates multiple techniques, including sliding time window, network modeling, graph distance measure, clustering, and cluster validation. The final match of the FIFA World Cup 2018 was taken as an example, and the state dynamics of teams Croatia and France were analyzed respectively. Additionally, the effects of the time windows and graph distance measures on the results were briefly discussed. This study presents a novel outlook on examining the dynamics of team passing networks, as it facilitates the recognition of important team states or state transitions in soccer and other team ball-passing sports for further analysis.



#9 Proximal fibular stress fracture in adolecent soccer player. A case report

Reference: Acta Biomed. 2023 Jun 23;94(S2):e2023090. doi: 10.23750/abm.v94iS2.14880.

Authors: Francesco Pogliacomi, Alberto Longhi, Umberto Ferrari, Paolo Schiavi, Alessio Pedrazzini, Enrico Vaienti, Francesco Ceccarelli, Filippo Calderazzi

Download link:

Summary: Fibular fractures are the third most common stress fractures in children and adolescents. Proximal fibular location is a very rare finding, with few reports in the literature and, frequently, careful investigations before a definitive diagnosis could be necessary. The authors report a case of an adolescent 13 years old soccer player with a proximal fibular fracture that was initially underestimated and misdiagnosed and ultimately confirmed as a stress lesion by MRI.



#10 Wearing the Same Jersey? The Impact of Players' Cultural Diversity and Shared Team Tenure on National Soccer Team Performance

Reference: J Econ Race Policy. 2023 Apr 28;1-13. doi: 10.1007/s41996-023-00120-4. Online ahead of print.

Authors: Yinle Huang, Marvin Washington, Brian P Soebbing, Daniel S Mason

Download link:

Summary: In the present paper, we empirically analyze a dataset from national soccer teams between 2004 and 2019 to investigate the impact of team members' cultural diversity on final team outcomes. Further, we examine the role of shared team tenure as a proxy of tacit knowledge and within team communications in relation to the cultural diversity-team performance relationship. After addressing a potential endogeneity issue, results from multiple instrumental variable estimation methods implied a higher level of cultural diversity enhanced on-field performance. Meanwhile, increased level of shared team tenure further strengthened the effect associated with cultural diversity on team performance.



#11 Mapping the youth soccer: A bibliometrix analysis using R-tool

Reference: Digit Health. 2023 Jun 20;9:20552076231183550. doi: 10.1177/20552076231183550. eCollection 2023 Jan-Dec.

Authors: Bo Liu, Chang-Jing Zhou, Hao-Wei Ma, Bo Gong

Download link:

Summary: In recent years, there has been an increase in the scientific production of youth soccer. However, a panoramic map of research on this subject does not exist. The aim of this study was to identify global research trends in youth soccer over time, among the main levels of analysis: sources, authors, documents, and keywords. The bibliometric software Biblioshiny was used to analyze 2606 articles in Web of Science (WoS) published between 2012 and 2021. The main conclusion is that US and UK scholars dominate the research; the topics of research are changing with the real needs, and research on the topic of performance has been of interest to scholars; talent identification and development, performance, injury prevention, and concussion are the studies of interest to scholars in this area. This finding, which offers a global picture of youth soccer research over time, can help future research in this or similar domains.



#12 Observations of Player (de)Selection Within a Professional UK Soccer Academy

Reference: J Sci Sport Exerc. 2023 Mar 8;1-10. doi: 10.1007/s42978-023-00222-3. Online ahead of print.

Authors: Rich J Kite, Mark R Noon, Rhys Morris, Peter Mundy, Neil D Clarke

Download link:

Summary: The present study engaged in an ethnographical observation of the processes used to determine player (de)selections within a professional academy. English category-2 youth academy players (n = 96) from U10-U16 age groups undertook anthropometric profiling (height, mass and somatic maturation) and fitness assessments (10 m, 20 m & 30 m linear sprints, 505-agility test, countermovement and squat jumps). Each players lead coach (n = 4) subjectively graded players utilising a red, amber and green (RAG) rating system on a weekly (current performance) and quarterly (perceived potential) basis, across 25 weeks. A MANCOVA, controlling for maturation, was applied to determine differences in (de)selection by physical performance. Mann Whitney-U tests were used to distinguish difference in (de)selection by subjective grading (weekly and quarterly). The key finding was that quarterly subjective gradings established a higher cumulative score of green ratings in selected players and a low cumulative score of red ratings, and vice versa for deselected players (P ≤ 0.001 to 0.03). However, whilst these findings suggest that quarterly subjective grades of potential were able to provide the best predictors for player (de)selection, the findings should be viewed with caution due to high potential for confirmatory bias.



#13 Dynamic adjustment of submaximal effort soccer side-foot kicks

Reference: Sports Biomech. 2023 Jun 26;1-15. doi: 10.1080/14763141.2023.2227156. Online ahead of print.

Authors: Hiroyuki Nunome, Koichiro Inoue, Kohei Watanabe, Hiroshi Akima

Summary: We aimed to illustrate kicking leg dynamics during submaximal effort soccer side-foot kicks. Side-foot kicks with three effort levels (50, 75 and 100% effort levels based on maximal effort) of eight male university soccer players were captured (500 Hz) while initial ball velocities were monitored simultaneously. Systematic regulation in joint kinetics (angular impulses) was clearly demonstrated for hip flexion and knee extension moments thereby supporting the interpretation that the final foot velocity is controlled in a context of a planar, sequential segmental system. Out of the thigh-shank plane motion (hip external rotation moment) was also found to be systematically adjusted. Kinematic contributions of knee extension angular velocity to the final foot velocity increased significantly in the maximal effort while that of hip external rotation reduced significantly, coinciding with a more straightforward approach-run. The adjustable range of the foot-ball interaction was found to be rather smaller in side-foot kicks. However, significantly smaller ball/foot velocity ratios in the two submaximal conditions suggested ankle joint fixation was manipulated towards ball impact. Players and coaches ought to recognise that the intensities of side-foot kicks were regulated by the motions within and without the thigh-shank plane alongside several kinematic changes.



#14 How Do Football Playing Positions Differ in Body Composition? A First Insight into White Italian Serie A and Serie B Players

Reference: J Funct Morphol Kinesiol. 2023 Jun 15;8(2):80. doi: 10.3390/jfmk8020080.

Authors: Tindaro Bongiovanni, Alessio Rossi, Federico Genovesi, Giulia Martera, Giuseppe Puleo, Carmine Orlandi, Mirco Spedicato, F Marcello Iaia, Riccardo Del Vescovo, Stefano Gallo, Roberto Cannataro, Patrizio Ripari, Matteo Levi Micheli, Stefania Cataldi, Athos Trecroci

Download link:

Summary: The present study aimed to investigate how playing positions differ in specific body composition variables in professional soccer players with respect to specific field zones and tactical lines. Five hundred and six Serie A and B professional soccer players were included in the study and analyzed according to their playing positions: goalkeepers (GKs), central backs (CBs), fullbacks (FBs), central midfielders (MIDs), wide midfielders (WMs), attacking midfielders (AMs), second strikers (SSs), external strikers (ESs), and central forwards (CFs), as well as their field zones (central and external) and tactical lines (defensive, middle, and offensive). Anthropometrics (stature and body mass) of each player were recorded. Then, body composition was obtained by means of bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA). GKs and CFs were the tallest and heaviest players, with no differences from each other. Likewise, GKs and CFs, along with CBs, were apparently more muscular (for both upper and lower limbs) and fatter at the same time compared with the other roles. Overall, players of the defensive line (CBs and FBs), along with those playing in central field zones (CBs, MIDs, AMs, SSs, and CFs), were significantly (p < 0.05) superior in almost all anthropometric and body composition variables than those of middle and offensive line and external zones, respectively.



#15 Transfer Effect of Cognitive Advantages in Visual Working Memory Capacity: Evidence from Elite Football Players

Reference: Behav Sci (Basel). 2023 Jun 2;13(6):464. doi: 10.3390/bs13060464.

Authors: Xiaomei Wang, Zhigang Liu, Huanyu Zhang, Chaoxin Ji

Download link:

Summary: The research has indicated that elite football players demonstrate cognitive advantages in visual working memory capacity (VWMC); however, it remains unclear whether this effect transfers to other domains cognitive advantages. This study investigated the VWMC differences between elite football players and novices, with a particular focus on cognitive advantages. Elite football players (specialized in football) and novices were selected to complete the VWMC test task under three different stimulus conditions, then the differences in the VWMCs of elite football players and novices were analyzed. In comparison to novices, elite football players demonstrated cognitive advantages in VWMCs, along with a possible transfer effect. Additionally, the study showed that the reaction times among elite football players and novices differed, with elite players demonstrating shorter reaction times, which is a difference that was amplified as the number of stimuli increased. The VWMCs of elite football players was better than that of novices under professional and meaningless conditions, which indicates that the VWMCs of elite football players has a transfer effect. Through further analysis of the reaction times cognitive advantages, it was found that there are significant differences between elite football players and novices when responding to the stimuli in both professional and meaningless conditions.



#16 Effects of chronic core training on serum and erythrocyte oxidative stress parameters in amputee football players

Reference: Front Physiol. 2023 Jun 9;14:1188843. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2023.1188843. eCollection 2023.

Authors: Ahmet Kurtoğlu, Nurettin Konar, Faruk Akçınar, Bekir Çar, Nuray Üremiş, Yusuf Türköz, Özgür Eken, Halil İbrahim Ceylan, Vera Knappova, Magdalena Barasinska, Tomasz Gabrys

Download link:

Summary: The positive impact of aerobic exercise on blood oxidative stress parameters is well documented. However, the effect of core exercises on these parameters in amputee football players (AF) remains unclear. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the impact of core exercises on blood oxidative stress parameters in this population. Experimental method was adopted in the study. Eleven elite AF players participated in the study. The participants were divided randomly into two groups a core exercise group (CEG) and a control group (CG). Blood measurements were taken before and after the 8-week core exercise program. Blood measurements included erythrocyte Total Oxidant Status (eTOS), erythrocyte Total Antioxidant Status (eTAS), erythrocyte oxidative stress index (eOSI), serum nitric oxide (sNO), serum Total Oxidant Status (sTOS), serum Total Antioxidant Status (sTAS), serum oxidative stress index (sOSI), serum total thiol (sTT), serum native thiol (sNT), and serum disulfide (sDS) parameters were studied. According to the results of the study, a significant difference was found between the 0th and eighth week pre-aerobic training load (ATL) sTOS (p = .028) values of CEG values. A significant difference was found in sTOS (p = .028) and sOSI (p = .028) values after the 0th and eighth-week pre-ATL. A significant difference was found in the sTOS (p = .043) and sOSI values (p = .043) of CG at week 0th and eighth-week pre-ATL.  Overall, the results suggest that core exercises had a positive effect on blood oxidative stress parameters in AF players by reducing blood total oxidant levels.



#17 Utilising the learning in development research framework in a professional youth football club

Reference: Front Sports Act Living. 2023 Jun 8;5:1169531. doi: 10.3389/fspor.2023.1169531. eCollection 2023.

Authors: Mark O'Sullivan, James Vaughan, James L Rumbold, Keith Davids

Download link:

Summary: Underpinned by an ecological dynamics rationale, the Learning in Development Research Framework (LDRF) has been suggested to introduce methodological possibilities to investigate and illuminate: (i) socio-cultural constraints within a sports organization or club, and (ii), a research gap on the need for a more contemporary framework to guide reliable ways of conducting investigations and designing practical applications. To provide a strong justification for the nature of the fieldwork and methods adopted, we present insights from a 3-year and 5-month study at a professional football club in Sweden that adapted the framework as a central feature of their Department of Methodology for player development. A phronetic iterative approach was employed to analyze the data. The findings highlight the nature of constraints acting over varied timescales, transcending contexts to manifest in other contexts (e.g., practice task designs), influencing events and experiences. This indicated a need to dampen (using probes) the influence of the pervasive organizational "control over context" approaches that were acting as "sticky" socio-cultural constraints, shaping the intentions (in session design) and attention (during practice and performance) of players and coaches. A practical implication is that the LDRF does not prescribe a universal solution to player development. Rather that it can guide how researchers, practitioners, clubs and organisations could challenge themselves to adapt strategies to design contemporary athlete development frameworks within their ecosystem.


The Training Manager -