Latest research in football - week 19 - 2023

As previous literature updates, I have performed a PubCrawler search looking for football articles in NCBI Medline (PubMed) and GenBank databases. 


Following studies were retrieved for this week:

#1 Preseason Integrative Neuromuscular Training Improves Selected Measures of Physical Fitness in Highly Trained, Youth, Male Soccer Players

Reference: J Strength Cond Res. 2023 Jun 1;37(6):e384-e390. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0000000000004394. Epub 2022 Nov 30.

Authors: Raouf Hammami, Yassine Negra, Amar Nebigh, Rodrigo Ramirez-Campillo, Jason Moran, Helmi Chaabene

Summary: This study examined the effects of an 8-week integrative neuromuscular training (INT) program, including balance, strength, plyometric, and change of direction exercises, on measures of physical fitness in youth male soccer players. Twenty-four male soccer players participated in this study. They were randomly allocated into an INT (n = 12; age = 15.7 ± 0.6 years, body height = 179.75 ± 6.54 cm, body mass = 78.20 ± 7.44 kg, maturity-offset = +2.2 ± 0.6 years) or an active control (CG, n = 12; age = 15.4 ± 0.8 years, body height = 178.4 ± 6.4 cm, body mass = 72 ± 8.3 kg, maturity-offset = +1.9 ± 0.7 years) group. Before and after training, tests to measure dynamic balance (Y-Balance test [YBT]), muscle strength (one repetition maximum [1RM]), muscle power (five jump test [FJT], single-leg hop test [SLHT], and countermovement jump [CMJ] height), linear sprint time (10 and 30-m), and change of direction with ball (CoDball) were performed. The analysis of covariance was used to test between-group differences (INT vs. CG) at posttest using baseline values as covariates. Significant, large, between-group differences at posttest were noted for the YBT (p = 0.016; d = 1.1), 1RM (p = 0.011; d = 1.2), FJT (p = 0.027; d = 1.0), SLHT (p = 0.04; d = 1.4), CMJ height (p < 0.001; d = 1.9), 10-m sprint (p < 0.01; d = 1.6), and CoDball (p < 0.05; d = 0.9) in favor of the INT group. Significant moderate-to-large pre-to-post changes were detected in the INT group for YBT, 1RM, CMJ height, SLHT, FJT, 10-m and 30-m sprint time, and CoDball test (d = 0.7 to 3.07, p < 0.05). No significant pre-to-post changes were observed in the CG (p > 0.05), except for 10-m sprint time (d = 1.3; p < 0.05). Exposure to INT twice weekly is effective and time efficient to improve various measures of physical fitness in highly trained youth male soccer players.



#2 Energy cost differences between marathon runners and soccer players: Constant versus shuttle running

Reference: Front Physiol. 2023 May 3;14:1159228. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2023.1159228. eCollection 2023.

Authors: Johnny Padulo, Antonio Buglione, Alin Larion, Fabio Esposito, Christian Doria, Dražen Čular, Pietro Enrico di Prampero, Leonardo Alexandre Peyré-Tartaruga

Summary: In the last decades, the energy cost assessment provided new insight on shuttle or constant running as training modalities. No study, though, quantified the benefit of constant/shuttle running in soccer-players and runners. Therefore, the aim of this study was to clarify if marathon runners and soccer players present specific energy cost values related to their training experience performing constant and shuttle running. To this aim, eight runners (age 34 ± 7.30y; training experience 5.70 ± 0.84y) and eight soccer-players (age 18.38 ± 0.52y; training experience 5.75 ± 1.84y) were assessed randomly for 6' on shuttle-running or constant-running with 3 days of recovery in-between. For each condition, the blood lactate (BL) and the energy cost of constant (Cr) and shuttle running (CSh) was determined. To assess differences for metabolic demand in terms of Cr, CSh and BL over the two running conditions on the two groups a MANOVA was used. V⋅�·O2max were 67.9 ± 4.5 and 56.8 ± 4.3 ml·min-1 kg-1 (p = 0.0002) for marathon runners and soccer players, respectively. On constant running, the runners had a lower Cr compared to soccer players (3.86 ± 0.16 J kg-1m-1 vs. 4.19 ± 0.26 J kg-1 m-1; F = 9.759, respectively; p = 0.007). On shuttle running, runners had a higher CSh compared to soccer players (8.66 ± 0.60 J kg-1 m-1 vs. 7.86 ± 0.51 J kg-1 m-1; F = 8.282, respectively; with p = 0.012). BL on constant running was lower in runners compared to soccer players (1.06 ± 0.07 mmol L-1 vs. 1.56 ± 0.42 mmol L-1, respectively; with p = 0.005). Conversely, BL on shuttle running was higher in runners compared to soccer players 7.99 ± 1.49 mmol L-1 vs. 6.04 ± 1.69 mmol L-1, respectively; with p = 0.028). The energy cost optimization on constant or shuttle running is strictly related to the sport practiced.



#3 Internal and External Loads of Young Elite Soccer Players during Defensive Small-Sided Games

Reference: J Hum Kinet. 2023 Apr 20;87:179-188. doi: 10.5114/jhk/162027. eCollection 2023 Apr.

Authors: Alberto Rabano-Muñoz, Luis Suarez-Arrones, Bernardo Requena, Jose A Asian-Clemente

Summary: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different time periods on the internal and external loads of soccer players during small-sided games (SSGs). Seventeen young soccer players performed a SSG of 5 vs. 5 + 5 with 2 floaters, where two teams had possession of the ball, and one had to recover it. With established periods of 30 s (SSG30), 1 min (SSG1) or 2 min (SSG2), teams participated in a defensive role for these periods of time. Total distance covered, moderate speed running distance, high speed running distance, sprint running distance, accelerations, decelerations and Player Load were monitored using global positioning systems devices. The maximal heart rate and modified training impulse were monitored using heart rate monitors. The rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was also measured. Data showed a small increase between SSG30 and SSG1 in Player Load (ES = -0.35; p < 0.01), and a small increase in high speed running (ES = -0.41; p < 0.05) and sprinting (ES = -0.47; p < 0.01) between SSG30 and SSG2. Also, SSG1 showed a small increase in sprinting (ES = -0.57; p < 0.01) and accelerations (ES = -0.37; p < 0.05) with respect to SSG2. In addition, SSG2 showed a small increase in the RPE with respect to SSG30 (ES = 0.46; p < 0.05). The results indicate that shorter defensive periods in SSGs increased high speed running, while longer defensive periods promoted greater perceived exertion. Manipulation of the duration of defensive periods in SSGs is a variable that should be considered in soccer training.



#4 Blood Flow Restriction Is Not Useful as Soccer Competition Recovery in Youth Male National-Level Soccer Players: A Crossover Randomised Controlled Trial

Reference: Sports (Basel). 2023 May 7;11(5):99. doi: 10.3390/sports11050099.

Authors: Christian Castilla-López, Natalia Romero-Franco

Summary: In soccer, blood flow restriction (BFR) is used to optimise between-match recovery. However, the benefits are unclear. This study evaluated the effects of BFR as a recovery strategy after a competition on countermovement jump (CMJ) height, rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and the wellness of soccer players. Forty national-level soccer players were allocated into two conditions: BFR (an active recovery session wearing a BFR device, 24 h after a competition) or NoBFR (the same recovery without BFR). CMJ, RPE and wellness were evaluated the day (CMJ and RPE) or the morning (wellness) before the competition; just after the competition (CMJ and RPE); and 24, 48 (wellness) and 72 h later. After 4 weeks, the players changed conditions. All players showed impaired CMJ (p = 0.013), RPE (p < 0.001) and wellness (p < 0.001) after the match compared with the baseline. The CMJ returned to the baseline 24 h later and wellness returned 48 h later. Only in the BFR condition did the RPE remain impaired 24 h after the match, which was also the moment after finishing the BFR recovery session (p < 0.001). BFR during active recovery does not provide any additional benefits compared with traditional exercise modalities to recover CMJ, RPE and wellness in youth national-level soccer players. BFR could even induce an immediate higher RPE.



#5 Tri-axial loading response to anti-gravity running highlights movement strategy compensations during knee injury rehabilitation of a professional soccer player

Reference: Res Sports Med. 2023 May 24;1-11. doi: 10.1080/15438627.2023.2216824. Online ahead of print.

Authors: Matt Greig, Liam Mason, Andy Mitchell

Summary: Anti-gravity treadmills have been used in rehabilitation to manipulate exposure to loading and to prescribe return to outside running. Analysis is typically restricted to the vertical plane, but tri-axial accelerometry facilitates multi-planar analysis with relevance to injury mechanism. In this case a professional male soccer player, 4 weeks post-operative surgery to repair a medial meniscectomy, 8 months after Anterior Cruciate Ligament reconstruction to the same knee, completed anti-gravity treadmill running at 70-95% bodyweight (BW) at 5% increments. Tri-axial accelerometers were placed proximal to the Achilles tendon of the injured and healthy leg, and at C7. The planar acceleration at touchdown highlighted an increase at 85% BW, identifying 70% and 85% BW as discrete loading progressions. C7 (3.21 ± 0.68 m·s-2) elicited lower (P < 0.001) vertical acceleration than the lower limb (9.31 ± 1.82 m·s-2), with no difference between limbs suggesting bilateral symmetry. However, in the medio-lateral plane the affected limb (-0.15 ± 1.82 m·s-2) was exposed to lower (P = 0.001) medio-lateral acceleration than the non-affected limb (2.92 ± 1.35 m·s-2) at touchdown, indicative of bilateral asymmetry. PlayerLoad during foot contact was sensitive to accelerometer location, with the affected limb exposed to greater loading in all planes (P ≤ 0.082), exacerbated at 90-95% BW. Tri-axial accelerometry provides a means of assessing multi-planar loading during rehabilitation, enhancing objective progression.



#6 Return To Play Rate and Performance Following Surgical Repair of Athletic Pubalgia in Major League Soccer Players: A Retrospective Case-Control Study

Reference: Cureus. 2023 Apr 23;15(4):e38023. doi: 10.7759/cureus.38023. eCollection 2023 Apr.

Authors: Briley Guarneri, Logan Morrison, Adam Martorana, Ishan Gujral, Lafe Harris

Summary: Introduction Athletic pubalgia (AP) injuries requiring surgical repair in elite-level soccer players are significant injuries with the potential of impacting a player's playing time and performance. Currently, no data exists explicitly analyzing Major League Soccer (MLS) players' return to play (RTP) rates and performance following these surgeries. Methods A retrospective review of publicly available data of all MLS players who underwent surgery to repair an isolated AP injury from the league inception year of 1993 through 2021 was performed. Demographic data at the time of injury was collected. Athletes who successfully returned to play for at least two seasons in the MLS were matched to healthy controls in a 1:2 ratio by demographics and position. The index year was defined as the season, including pre- and post-season, that the surgery occurred. RTP date and performance metrics one and two years pre- and post-index year were collected. Statistical analysis was performed. Results Eighty-eight players underwent surgical repair for AP from 1993 through 2021. Eighty-five athletes were able to successfully RTP (96.5%). Twenty-five players met the inclusion criteria and were included in the final analysis. The average RTP time was 1.08±4.92 months. During the combined seasons following surgery, athletes in the AP group displayed a significant reduction in minutes played compared to the two combined seasons prior to surgery (4153±912.77 vs. 3405.36±1342.35 minutes; p=0.03). There was no significant reduction in performance metrics when compared to both prior season statistics and the matched cohort (p>0.05). Conclusion There is a high RTP rate among MLS players who undergo isolated surgical repair of AP. Although there was a significant reduction in combined minutes played in the two ensuing seasons following surgery, athletes who RTP demonstrated equivalent performance metrics comparable to their pre-injury seasons as well as to a matched cohort.



#7 Tensiomyographic Assessment of Contractile Properties in Elite Youth Soccer Players According to Maturity Status

Reference: J Hum Kinet. 2023 Apr 20;87:71-80. doi: 10.5114/jhk/161571. eCollection 2023 Apr.

Authors: Alexis Padrón-Cabo, Francisco J Corredoira, Miguel Lorenzo-Martínez, Sixto González-Víllora, Ezequiel Rey

Summary: Little is known about how muscle contractile properties are affected by biological maturation in elite youth soccer players. This study aimed to determine the effects of maturation on contractile properties of rectus femoris (RF) and biceps femoris (BF) muscles assessed by tensiomyography (TMG) and provide reference values for elite youth soccer players. One hundred twenty-one elite youth soccer players (14.98 ± 1.83 years; 167.38 ± 10.37 cm; 60.65 ± 11.69 kg) took part in the study. The predicted peak height velocity (PHV) was used in order to establish players' maturity status (Pre-PHV, n = 18; Mid-PHV, n = 37; Post-PHV = 66). Maximal radial displacement of the muscle belly, contraction time, delay time, and contraction velocity for RF and BF muscles were recorded. One-way ANOVA showed no significant differences between PHV groups for any tensiomyography variables in RF and BF muscles (p > 0.05). Our results established that maturity status did not show a significant effect in mechanical and contractile properties on RF and BF muscles evaluated by TMG in elite youth soccer players. These findings and reference values can be useful for strength and conditioning coaches of elite soccer academies in order to optimize the evaluation of neuromuscular profiles.



#8 The team behind the team: prevalence and correlates of mental health problems among professional football team medical and allied staff?

Reference: Res Sports Med. 2023 May 27;1-12. doi: 10.1080/15438627.2023.2216827. Online ahead of print.

Authors: Yavuz Lima, Nazlı Deniz Öz, Sergen Devran, Simon Rice, Bülent Bayraktar

Summary: This study aimed to evaluate depression, anxiety, and stress prevalence and correlates among professional football team medical and allied health staff (MAHS) in Turkey. An online survey was sent to all MAHS (n = 865) attending the professional development accreditation course organized at the end of the 2021-2022 football season in Turkey. Three standardized scales assessed depression, anxiety, and stress. A total of 573 staff participated (response rate = 66.2%). 36.7% of MAHS reported at least moderate severity depression, 25% anxiety, and 80.5% stress. Younger (26-33 years) and less experienced (6-10 years) MAHS reported higher stress scores than their older (50-57 years) and more experienced (>15 years) counterparts (p = 0.02 and p = 0.03, respectively). Masseurs (compared to team doctors) and staff without a second job (compared to those with a second job) reported higher depression and anxiety scores (p = 0.02, p = 0.03, p = 0.03, p = 0.02, respectively). Depression, anxiety, and stress scores of MAHS whose monthly income was less than $519 were higher than those whose income was more than $1036 (all p < 0.01). Findings demonstrated that professional football team MAHS suffer from symptoms of mental-ill-health at substantial rates. In light of these results, organizational policies should be implemented to proactively support the mental health of MAHS working in professional football.



#9 Head Impact Exposure in Female Collegiate Soccer by Activity Type

Reference: J Appl Biomech. 2023 May 20;1-8. doi: 10.1123/jab.2022-0134. Online ahead of print.

Authors: Mary Frances Segars, Tanner M Filben, N Stewart Pritchard, Logan E Miller, Christopher M Miles, Joel D Stitzel, Jillian E Urban

Summary: Soccer, one of the most popular sports in the world, has one of the highest rates of sports-related concussions. Additionally, soccer players are frequently exposed to nonconcussive impacts from intentionally heading the ball, a fundamental component of the sport. There have been many studies on head impact exposure in soccer, but few focus on soccer practices or practice activities. This study aimed to characterize the frequency and magnitude of head impacts in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I female soccer practice activities using a custom-fit instrumented mouthpiece. Sixteen players were instrumented over the course of 54 practice sessions. Video analysis was performed to verify all mouthpiece-recorded events and classify practice activities. Category groupings of practice activities include technical training, team interaction, set pieces, position-specific, and other. Differences in head impact rates and peak resultant kinematics were observed across activity types and category groupings. Technical training had the highest impact rate compared to other category groupings. Impacts occurring during set piece activities had the highest mean kinematic values. Understanding drill exposure can help inform coaches on training plans aimed to reduce head impact exposure for their athletes.



#10 Neurophysiological Effects of Repeated Soccer Heading in Youth

Reference: J Biomech Eng. 2023 Sep 1;145(9):091005. doi: 10.1115/1.4062423.

Authors: Colin M Huber, Declan A Patton, Kathryn R Rownd, Carlyn Patterson Gentile, Christina L Master, Kristy B Arbogast

Summary: Repeated head loading in sports is associated with negative long-term brain health, and there is growing evidence of short-term neurophysiological changes after repeated soccer heading. The objective of this study was to quantify the head kinematics and effects of repetitive soccer headers in adolescents using an instrumented mouthguard. Adolescent soccer players aged 13-18 years were randomly assigned to a kicking control, frontal heading, or oblique heading group. Participants completed neurophysiological assessments at three-time points: immediately prior to, immediately after, and approximately 24 h after completing 10 headers or kicks. The suite of assessments included the Post-Concussion Symptom Inventory, visio-vestibular exam, King-Devick test, modified Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction and Balance with force plate sway measurement, pupillary light reflex, and visual evoked potential. Data were collected for 19 participants (17 male). Frontal headers resulted in significantly higher peak resultant linear acceleration (17.4 ± 0.5 g) compared to oblique headers (12.1 ± 0.4 g, p < 0.001), and oblique headers resulted in significantly higher peak resultant angular acceleration (frontal: 1147 ± 45 rad/s2, oblique: 1410 ± 65 rad/s2, p < 0.001). There were no neurophysiological deficits for either heading group or significant differences from controls at either post-heading timepoint, and therefore, a bout of repeated headers did not result in changes in the neurophysiological measures evaluated in this study. The current study provided data regarding the direction of headers with the goal to reduce the risk of repetitive head loading for adolescent athletes.



#11 Sport-Related Effect on Knee Strength Profile during Puberty: Basketball vs. Soccer

Reference: J Funct Morphol Kinesiol. 2023 May 8;8(2):57. doi: 10.3390/jfmk8020057.

Authors: Vassilis Gerodimos, Konstantina Karatrantou, Christos Batatolis, Panagiotis Ioakimidis

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Summary: The present study examined and compared the isokinetic peak torque and the reciprocal ratios of the knee joint between young basketball and soccer players. An amount of 100 soccer and 100 basketball players took part in this study and were separated into five equal groups (n = 20), according to their chronological age (12, 13, 14, 15, and 16 years old). The absolute concentric (CON) and eccentric (ECC) peak torque of the knee flexor and extensor muscles (at 60°/s, 180°/s) were assessed using a Cybex Norm dynamometer, and the relative peak torque (per unit of body mass), as well as the conventional (CON/CON; ECC/ECC) and functional (CON/ECC; ECC/CON) ratios, were calculated. Data analysis indicated that the basketball players had higher absolute peak torque values than the soccer players throughout their developmental ages (p < 0.05). When the isokinetic peak torque values were normalized relative to body mass, no differences were observed between basketball and soccer players in any age group (p > 0.05). Additionally, no differences were observed in conventional and functional ratios between soccer and basketball players (p > 0.05). In conclusion, it appears that, during developmental ages (12-16 years old), the isokinetic strength profile (independent of body mass affecting absolute values) of knee extensor and flexor muscles develops similarly in basketball and soccer players.



#12 Development of a Standardised System to Classify Injury-Inciting Circumstances in Football: the Football Injury Inciting Circumstances Classification System (FIICCS)

Reference: Sports Med. 2023 May 26. doi: 10.1007/s40279-023-01857-6. Online ahead of print.

Authors: Francesco Aiello, Alan McCall, Susan J Brown, Andreas Serner, Lauren V Fortington, Suzanne Afra Elisabeth Huurman, Colin Lewin, Masashi Nagao, James O'Brien, Anastasia Panossian, Ricard Pruna, Guilherme Passos Ramos, Matthew Whalan, Franco M Impellizzeri

Summary: A comprehensive examination of the sport-specific activities and circumstances being performed at the time of injury is important to hypothesise mechanisms, develop prevention strategies and inform future investigations. Results reported in the literature are inconsistent because inciting activities are reported using different classifications. Hence the aim was to develop a standardised system for the reporting of inciting circumstances. The system was developed using a modified Nominal Group Technique. The initial panel included 12 sports practitioners and researchers from four continents with respectively ≥ 5 years of experience working in professional football and/or conducting injury research. The process consisted of six phases: idea generation, two surveys, one online meeting and two confirmations. For answers to the closed questions, consensus was deemed achieved if ≥ 70% of respondents agreed. Open-ended answers were qualitatively analysed and then introduced in subsequent phases. Ten panellists completed the study. The risk of attrition bias was low. The developed system includes a comprehensive range of inciting circumstances across five domains: contact type, ball situation, physical activity, session details, contextual information. The system also distinguishes between a core set (essential reporting) and an optional set. The panel deemed all the domains to be important and easy to use both in football and in research environments. A system to classify inciting circumstances in football was developed. Given the extent of reporting inconsistency of inciting circumstances in the available literature, this can be used while further studies evaluate its reliability.



#13 Training load comparison between small, medium, and large-sided games in professional football

Reference: Front Sports Act Living. 2023 May 5;5:1165242. doi: 10.3389/fspor.2023.1165242. eCollection 2023.

Authors: Marco Beato, Jordi Vicens-Bordas, Javier Peña, Andrew J Costin

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Summary: This study aimed to assess if internal and external load parameters were different between sided game formats, if players' positions influenced these parameters, and if load parameters were different among sided game types (from 2vs2 to 10vs10) in professional football players. Twenty-five male players of the same club were enrolled in this study (age = 27 ± 9 years and body mass = 78 ± 14 kg). Sided games were categorized in formats as small-sided games (SSG, n = 145), medium-sided games (MSG, n = 431), and large-sided games (LSG, n = 204). Players were divided into roles such as center backs (CB), fullbacks (FB), center midfielders (CM), attacking midfielders (AM), and strikers (ST). STATSports 10 Hz GNSS Apex units were used to monitor external load parameters such as distance, high-speed running (HSR), sprinting distance, accelerations, and decelerations. The linear mixed model analysis found differences between formats (p < 0.001) for the rate of perceived exertion (RPE), distance, HSR, sprinting, accelerations, and decelerations. Differences were found between positions for HSR (p = 0.004), sprinting (p = 0.006), and decelerations (p < 0.001). Moreover, a significant difference was found between sided game types (p < 0.001) for RPE, distance, HSR, sprinting, accelerations, and decelerations. In conclusion, some sided games formats are more suitable for specific load-specific parameters (e.g., distance per minute, HSR, and sprinting are greater during LSG). The number of accelerations and decelerations is higher in MSG compared to other formats. Finally, players' positions influenced external load metrics, specifically HSR and decelerations but not RPE and distance.



#14 Effect of the FIFA 11+ injury prevention program in collegiate female football players over three consecutive seasons

Reference: Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2023 May 21. doi: 10.1111/sms.14379. Online ahead of print.

Authors: Hirohisa Magoshi, Takuma Hoshiba, Miwako Tohyama, Norikazu Hirose, Toru Fukubayashi

Summary: This study aimed to investigate the preventive effects of the FIFA 11+ for one-season and over three consecutive seasons on the injury incidence rates in collegiate female football players in terms of duration of intervention. A total of 763 collegiate female football players from seven teams belonging to Kanto University Women Football Association Division 1 in 2013-2015 seasons were included in the study. At the start of the study, 235 players were assigned to a FIFA 11+ intervention group (four teams, 115 players) and a control group (three teams, 120 players). The intervention period was set to three seasons, and the players were followed up during this period. The one-season effect of the FIFA 11+ was investigated after each season. The effect of continuous intervention was verified in 66 and 62 players from the intervention and control groups who continued the study for all three seasons, respectively. The one-season intervention showed significantly lower total, ankle, knee, sprain, ligament injury, noncontact, moderate and severe injury incidence rates in the intervention group in each season. Regarding the continuous intervention, compared with the first season, the injury incidence rates in lower extremity, ankle, and sprains, decreased in the intervention group by 66.0%, 79.8%, and 82.2%, respectively, in the second season, and by 82.6%, 94.6%, and 93.4%, respectively, in the third season, indicating the persistent effect of the FIFA 11+. In conclusion, the FIFA 11+ is an effective program for lower extremity injury prevention in collegiate female football players, and preventive effects persist with continuation of the program.



#15 Interpersonal coordination of opposing player dyads during attacks performed in official football matches

Reference: Sports Biomech. 2023 May 21;1-16. doi: 10.1080/14763141.2023.2212664. Online ahead of print.

Authors: Fabio Giuliano Caetano, Paulo Roberto Pereira Santiago, Ricardo da Silva Torres, Sergio Augusto Cunha, Felipe Arruda Moura

Summary: The purpose of this study was to characterise the interpersonal coordination between opponent players during offensive sequences in official matches and to verify if offensive sequences ended in shots to goal present different coordination patterns when compared than those that ended in defensive tackles. A total of 580 offensive sequences occurred during matches resulting in shots to goal (n = 172) or defensive tackles (n = 408) were analysed. The bidimensional coordinates and technical actions of male professional football players (n = 1160) were obtained using a video-based tracking system. Dyads were defined using a network analysis and composed of the nearest opponent. Interpersonal coordination of the dyads was analysed using the vector coding and the frequency for each coordination pattern was computed. In-phase was predominant for all displacement directions and offensive sequences outcomes, and antiphase was the least frequent. For lateral displacements, offensive sequences ending in shot to goal presented lower frequency for in-phase and higher frequency for offensive player phase than ended in defensive tackle. This information about the relationship of opponent players dyads during decisive moments of the matches provides fundamentals for future research and assists coaches to understand the different behaviours in successful and unsuccessful attacks.



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