Latest research in football - week 29 - 2022

As previous literature updates, I have performed a PubCrawler search looking for football articles in NCBI Medline (PubMed) and GenBank databases. 


Following studies were retrieved for this week:

#1 Perception of Affordances for Dribbling in Soccer: Exploring Children as Architects of Skill Development Opportunity

Reference: Sports (Basel). 2022 Jun 24;10(7):99. doi: 10.3390/sports10070099.

Authors: Michael J Duncan, Ricardo Martins, Mark Noon, Emma L J Eyre

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Summary: This study examined affordance perception for soccer dribbling using a mixed-methods approach in male grassroots soccer players. We examined how children construct and perceive skills practices for dribbling in soccer. Fourteen boys aged 10-11 years (Mean ± SD = 10.8 ± 0.4 years) who were regularly engaged in grassroots soccer participated in the present study. Children were provided with ten soccer cones and asked to create their own soccer dribbling pattern that would enable them to maximise the number of touches with a football and then dribble the ball in the pattern they had created for a 1 min period. Children were interviewed to explore their perception of affordances for soccer dribbling. The test of gross motor development-3 was used to assess fundamental movement skills (FMS), and the UGent soccer dribbling test was used to assess soccer dribbling skills. Children self-rated their own ability for soccer dribbling, as did their coaches. Pearson's correlations were employed to examine the associations between quantitative variables, and thematic analysis was used to explore qualitative data. Results of the present study suggest that those children who created patterns with less space between cones accrued more touches of the football in their dribbling task (r = -0.671, p = 0.03). Children with a higher perception of their own dribbling ability had higher scores for FMS (r = 0.604, p = 0.049). Those children who scored better in actual soccer dribbling had higher scores for FMS (r = -0.746, p = 0.012) and were rated as better dribblers by their coaches (r = -0.67, p = 0.03). Interview data suggest a feedback loop between perception of ability and actual ability, which influenced the dribbling patterns that were created. This suggests that dribbling performance is scaled to the (perceived) action capabilities of the children, and children can act as architects in their own skill development.



#2 Physiological and locomotor demands during small-sided games are related to match demands and physical fitness? A study conducted on youth soccer players

Reference: BMC Sports Sci Med Rehabil. 2022 Jul 23;14(1):138.  doi: 10.1186/s13102-022-00535-w.

Authors: Filipe Manuel Clemente, Ana Filipa Silva, Adam Kawczyński, Mehmet Yıldız, Yung-Sheng Chen, Sabri Birlik, Hadi Nobari, Zeki Akyildiz

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Summary: The purpose of the study was: (i) to analyze the relationships of physiological and locomotor demands between small-sided games (3v3 and 5v5) and official matches (11v11); (ii) to analyze the relationships between small-sided games demands and the physical fitness of youth soccer players. The observational study lasted three weeks. In the first week participants performed the 5v5 (50 × 31 and 40 × 25 m) repeatedly over four days. In the third week they repeatedly performed the 3v3 (39 × 24 and 32 × 19 m) over four consecutive days. Twenty youth soccer players (age: 16.8 ± 0.41) were tested twice for their final velocity at 30-15 Intermittent Fitness test (VIFT), peak speed attained at 30-m sprint test (peak speed), and anaerobic speed reserve (ASR). The heart rate responses and locomotor demands were monitored in the SSGs (3v3 and 5v5) and matches (11v11) occurring once a week. The Polar Team Pro was used as the instrument to monitor heart rate and locomotor demands. Three official matches were also monitored during the period. Results revealed no significant correlations (p > 0.05) between small-sided games and match physiological or locomotor demands. However, VIFT and ASR were significantly correlated with distance covered at 5v5 (r = 0.483; p = 0.031; and r = - 0.474; p = 0.035, respectively), average speed (r = 0.474; p = 0.035; and r = - 0.453; p = 0.045, respectively), while VIFT was also significantly correlated with distance covered at Z2 intensity (r = 0.510; p = 0.022). The results suggest that the physiological and locomotor demands occurring in small-sided games are significantly different from those occurring in official matches. Thus, physiological and locomotor similarities between small-sided games and official matches are scarce. Considering the second purpose of this study, the results suggest that VIFT and ASR are important physical fitness parameters to modulate the amount of distance covered by the players in 5v5, the average pace, and also the distance covered at high intensities.



#3 Effect of 3 vs. 3 Soccer Small-Sided Game on Various Performance, Inflammatory, Muscle Damage and Hormonal Indicators in Semi-Professional Players

Reference: Sports (Basel). 2022 Jun 28;10(7):102. doi: 10.3390/sports10070102.

Authors: Evangelos Bekris, Dimitrios I Bourdas, Eleftherios Mylonis, Ioannis Ispirlidis, Emmanouil D Zacharakis, Athanasios Katis

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Summary: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a soccer small-sided game (SSG) on performance, inflammatory, muscle damage and hormonal indicators. Twenty-two male soccer players participated and were assigned to either experimental (EXP = 12) or control (CON = 10) groups. Subjective fatigue (RPE) and lactate (La¯) were measured during the SSG; vertical squat jump (SJ), 20-m sprint, creatine kinase (CK), interleukin-6 (IL-6), cortisol (C), and testosterone (T) were measured before (PRE), after (POST), 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h after the SSG in the EXP group. The heart rate during the SSG reached 92 ± 3% of their HRmax, whereas La¯ and RPE reached 13.02 ± 1.60 mmol·L-1 and 15 ± 1 after SSG, respectively. The IL-6, different among measurements (F (1.04, 11.50) = 504.82, p < 0.001), peaked (3.52 ± 0.43 pg·mL-1 [95%CI; 3.28-3.77]) after the SSG and returned to baseline 24 h later. The CK, different among measurements (F (1.76, 19.32) = 93.96, p < 0.001), peaked (536.58 ± 124.73U·L-1 [95%CI; 466.01-607.15]) 24 h after the SSG and remained significantly higher than PRE condition in POST and up to 72 h later. The T/C ratio, significantly different among measurements (F (1.73, 19.05) = 12.12, p < 0.001), was at its lowest (0.44 ± 0.16 [95%CI; 0.35-0.54]) immediately after the SSG (p < 0.05) and returned to baseline after 24 h. It seems that 48 h (at the most) after an SSG is adequate time for players to recover, and a high training load should be avoided sooner than 24 h after an SSG.



#4 Apophyseal Avulsion of the Rectus Femoris Tendon Origin in Adolescent Soccer Players

Reference: Children (Basel). 2022 Jul 8;9(7):1016.  doi: 10.3390/children9071016.0

Authors: Hanneke Weel, A J Peter Joosten, Christiaan J A van Bergen

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Summary: Apophyseal avulsions of the rectus femorus tendon (RFT) at the anterior inferior iliac spine (AIIS) can occur in adolescents, often while performing soccer. Patient-reported outcomes (PROMs) and time to return to sport of these patients are relatively unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the PROMs and return to sports of patients with AIIS avulsions and compare the results with those reported in the literature. This is a case series of seven consecutive patients presenting at our hospital between 2018 and 2020 with an apophyseal avulsion of the RFT from the AIIS. The patients were assessed with use of the WOMAC and Tegner scores and return to sports was evaluated. All patients were male soccer players (median age 13 years; range, 12-17). They were all initially treated non-operatively. One of the patients subsequently needed excision surgery of a heterotopic ossification because of non-transient hip impingement. All other patients recovered after a period of relative rest. Median time to return to sports was 2.5 months (range, 2-3). At a median follow-up of 33 months (range, 18-45), the WOMAC (median, 100; range, 91-100) and Tegner scores (median, 9; range, 5-9) were high. In accordance with the existing literature, most patients with apophyseal avulsions of the AIIS recover well with non-operative treatment. However, the avulsion can lead to hip impingement due to heterotopic ossifications possibly needing surgical excision. Sport resumption is achievable after 2-3 months, and patient-reported outcomes are highly satisfactory in the long term.



#5 An Individualized Coach Development Program for Older Adult Player-Coaches in a Masters Football League in Colombia

Reference: J Aging Phys Act. 2022 Jul 27;1-11. doi: 10.1123/japa.2021-0212. Online ahead of print.

Authors: Catalina Belalcazar, Tarcisio Hernández Nariño, Bettina Callary

Summary: Coaches contribute toward helping older adults achieve quality sport experiences, but there are few resources grounded in adult-oriented psychosocial approaches from which they can learn. The purpose of this Participatory Action Research study was to facilitate a personalized professional development program for a Colombian football (soccer) league of older adult men using an evidence-based self-assessment tool for Masters coaches. Data were collected from 23 coaches, who were also players in the league, via interviews, workshops, and observations. Data were analyzed via reflective thematic analysis that aimed to understand coaches' perceptions of how they learned through the workshops and how they implemented what they learned into their coaching. Findings indicate that personalized professional development enabled better structured leadership in the league, creating Quality Masters Sport Experiences.



#6 Monitoring Elite Youth Football Players' Physiological State Using a Small-Sided Game: Associations With a Submaximal Running Test

Reference: Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2022 Jul 22;1-9. doi: 10.1123/ijspp.2022-0026. Online ahead of print.

Authors: Kobe C Houtmeyers, Werner F Helsen, Arne Jaspers, Sjaantje Nanne, Shaun McLaren, Jos Vanrenterghem, Michel S Brink

Summary: The aim was to examine the utility of a standardized small-sided game (SSG) for monitoring within-player changes in mean exercise heart rate (HRex) when compared with a submaximal interval shuttle-run test (ISRT). Thirty-six elite youth football players (17 [1] y) took part in 6 test sessions across an in-season period (every 4 wk). Sessions consisted of the ISRT (20-m shuttles, 30″:15″ work:rest ratio, 70% maximal ISRT) followed by an SSG (7v7, 80 × 56 m, 6 min). HRex was collected during both protocols, with SSG external load measured as high-speed running distance (>19.8 km·h-1) and acceleration distance (>2 m·s-2). Data were analyzed using linear mixed-effect models. Controlling for SSG external load improved the model fit describing the SSG-ISRT HRex relationship (χ2 = 12.6, P = .002). When SSG high-speed running distance and SSG acceleration distance were held constant, a 1% point change in SSG HRex was associated with a 0.5% point change in ISRT HRex (90% CI: 0.4 to 0.6). Inversely, when SSG HRex was held constant, the effects of a 100-m change in SSG high-speed running distance and a 21-m change in SSG acceleration distance on ISRT HRex were -1.0% (-1.5 to -0.4) and -0.6% points (-1.1 to 0.0), respectively. An SSG can be used to track within-player changes in HRex for monitoring physiological state. Given the uncertainty in estimates, we advise to only give meaning to changes in SSG HRex >2% points. Additionally, we highlight the importance of considering external load when monitoring SSG HRex.



#7 Data-driven strength and conditioning, and technical training programs for goalkeeper's diving save in football

Reference: Sports Biomech. 2022 Jul 27;1-13. doi: 10.1080/14763141.2022.2099966. Online ahead of print.

Authors: Rony Ibrahim, Vosse de Boode, Idsart Kingma, Jaap H van Dieën

Summary: The goal of this study was to evaluate the technical and physical adaptations to a data-driven 12-weeks training programs that incorporated recent findings from biomechanical studies on the diving save. Three-dimensional kinematics and kinetics were collected and analysed from 11 goalkeepers diving to save high (190 cm) and low (30 cm) balls at three occasions: twice pre-training and once post-training. Intraclass correlation coefficients were found to be excellent (>.7) between the pre-training tests, and there were no learning effects between them. Three-way repeated measures ANOVAs were used to evaluate the effect of dive side, dive height and training programme (pre- vs post-training) on normalised dive time [s·m-1], average centre of mass (CoM) horizontal velocity [m·s-1] and total power [W] generated at contralateral and ipsilateral push-offs. Compared to pre-training, the post-training results revealed greater average CoM horizontal velocity (+.82 m·s-1, 95% CI = [.62, 1.02]) and power (+523 W, 95% CI = [313, 732]) at contralateral push-off. These adaptations caused a reduction in normalised dive time (- .008 s·m-1, 95% CI = [- .014, - .002]) at post-training compared to pre-training. This translates to 42 cm more goal area coverage in a penalty situation.



#8 Qualitative Team Formation Analysis in Football: A Case Study of the 2018 FIFA World Cup

Reference: Front Psychol. 2022 Jul 8;13:863216. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2022.863216. eCollection 2022.

Authors: Jasper Beernaerts, Bernard De Baets, Matthieu Lenoir, Nico Van de Weghe

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Summary: In this paper, we explore the use of the Static Qualitative Trajectory Calculus (QTCS), a qualitative spatiotemporal method based on the QTC, for the analysis of team formations in football. While methods for team formation analysis in sports are predominantly quantitative in nature, QTCS enables the comparison of team formations by describing the relative positions between players in a qualitative manner, which is more related to the way players position themselves on the field. QTCS has the potential to allow to monitor to what extent a football team plays according to a coach's predetermined formation. When applied to multiple matches of one team, the method can contribute to the definition of the playing style of a team. We present an experiment aimed at identifying the team formation played by Belgian national football team during the 2018 FIFA World Cup held in France.



#9 The three-dimensional reconstruction of an Achilles tendon rupture in a professional football player reveals a multiplanar injury mechanism

Reference: Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2022 Jul 28. doi: 10.1007/s00167-022-07078-0.

Authors: Francesco Della Villa, Fabio Esposito, Mattia Busà, Susanna Stillavato, Matteo Zago

Summary: Achilles tendon rupture (ATR) is a rare although very serious injury for football players; currently, studies on ATR in football are scant. This case report intends to firstly describe the situational pattern and three-dimensional mechanism of the ATR injury occurred to a professional football player during the last UEFA 2020 Championship. To reconstruct the full 3D joint kinematics throughout the injury action, the model-based image-matching technique was used. The key findings were: (i) ATR injury combined a sudden ankle dorsiflexion action with an internal plantarflexion moment while performing a crossover cut at high speed; (ii) a multi-planar loading occurred during the push-off phase.Level of evidence V.



#10 "It's My Country I'm Playing for"-A Biographical Study on National Identity Development of Youth Elite Football Players With Migrant Background

Reference: Front Sports Act Living. 2022 Jul 12;4:893019. doi: 10.3389/fspor.2022.893019. eCollection 2022.

Authors: Klaus Seiberth, Ansgar Thiel, Jannika M John

Summary: Sport represents a prominent topic for public and scientific debates on national identity. Looking at Germany, public discourses on national belonging have primarily focused on national elite football and on German-born international football players with Turkish background. Representing the biggest ethnic community in Germany and being highly represented in German youth elite football, athletes with Turkish background are prime examples for the complexity and ambiguity of identity formations in modern immigration countries in general and in youth elite football in particular. Current research has particularly focused on national identity formations of (youth) elite players with migrant background. However, there is a lack of studies that address the process of national identity development in youth elite sport. For that reason, the study aimed to explore stories of national identity development from the perspective of youth football players with Turkish background in German youth elite football. By conducting 10 expert interviews and biographical mappings, we identified specific types, strands, and trajectories of national identity development. Overall, we identified three types of narratives on national identity development: "going with the nomination(s)," "reconsidering national belonging," and "adding up chances". Our findings illustrate that national identity development in youth elite sport is particularly shaped by youth elite sport and the national team question. Hence, the stories indicate that international careers not necessarily foster national identification with a nation but can also reduce feelings of national belonging sustainably.



#11 Time-loss and recurrence of lateral ligament ankle sprains in male elite football: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Reference: Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2022 Jul 29. doi: 10.1111/sms.14217. Online ahead of print.

Authors: Zacharias Flore, Karen Hambly, Kyra De Coninck, Götz Welsch

Summary: A literature search was conducted to systematically review and meta-analyse time-loss and recurrence rate of lateral ankle sprains (LAS) in male professional football players. Six electronic databases (PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, PEDRO, CINAHL, Cochrane) were searched independently, separately both for time-loss and recurrence from inception until 30 April 2021. In addition, reference lists were screened manually to find additional literature. Cohort studies, case reports, case-control studies and RCT in English language of male professional football players (aged more than 16 years) for which data on time-loss or recurrence rates of LAS were available were included. A total of 13 (recurrence) and 12 (time-loss) studies met the inclusion criteria. The total sample size of the recurrence studies was 36.201 participants (44.404 overall initial injuries; 7944 initial ankle sprain (AS) injuries, 1193 recurrent AS injuries). 16.442 professional football players (4893 initial AS injuries; 748 recurrent AS injuries) were meta-analysed. A recurrence rate of 17.11% (95% CI: 13.31-20.92%; df=12; Q=19.53; I2 =38.57%) based on the random-effects model was determined. A total of 7736 participants were part of the time-loss studies (35.888 total injuries; 4848 total ankle injuries; 3370 AS injuries). Out of the 7736 participants, 7337 participants met the inclusion criteria with a total of 3346 AS injuries. The average time-loss was 15 days (weighted mean: 15.92; median: 14.95; min: 9.55; max: 52.9). We determined a priori considerable heterogeneity (CI: 18.15-22.08; df=11; Q=158; I2 =93%), so that the data on time-loss are only presented descriptively. There is an average time-loss of 15 days per LAS and a recurrence rate of 17%. LAS is one of the most common types of injury with higher recurrence rates than ACL injuries (9-12%) in professional football players. Nevertheless, the focus of research in recent years has been mostly on ACL injuries. However, the high recurrence rates and long-term consequences show the necessity for research in the field of LAS in elite football. Yet, heterogeneous data lead to difficulties concerning the aspect of comparability.



#12 Analysis of Injuries and Wellness in Blind Athletes during an International Football Competition

Reference: Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2022 Jul 20;19(14):8827. doi: 10.3390/ijerph19148827.

Authors: Jesús Muñoz-Jiménez, Luisa Gámez-Calvo, Daniel Rojas-Valverde, Kiko León, José M Gamonales

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Summary: Five-a-side football for blind people is the only adapted football modality present at the Paralympic games. Fa5 is a collaborative-opposition sport in which its participants play with no vision, which causes numerous impacts. At the London 2012 Paralympic Games, it was the sport with the highest incidence of sports injuries. The main objective of this work is to analyse the association between pain perception; spatio-temporal, mechanical, and metabolic workload with injuries; and wellness in players during an international Fa5 competition. The following variables, monitored during an International Fa5 Tournament, were analysed: general well-being, perception of pain and injuries, and the spatio-temporal and metabolic workload. The results show that the incidence of injuries increases as the tournament progresses, where injured players reported greater muscle pain and stress before the matches started. Besides, the players' internal and external load did not explain the incidence of injury. Still, the values obtained in the wellness questionnaire, the perception of pain, and stress suggested they contributed to the incidence of injury.



#13 Football Fandom as a Platform for Digital Health Promotion and Behaviour Change: A Mobile App Case Study

Reference: Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2022 Jul 9;19(14):8417.  doi: 10.3390/ijerph19148417.

Authors: Alex Fenton, Anna Mary Cooper-Ryan, Mariann Maz Hardey, Wasim Ahmed

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Summary: The last decade has seen a dramatic shift toward the study of fitness surveillance, thanks in part to the emergence of mobile health (mHealth) apps that allow users to track their health through a variety of data-driven insights. This study examines the adoption trends and community mediation of the mobile fitness application 'FanFit', a platform aimed at promoting physical activity among sports fans by creating a fitness app branded to their favourite team for health promotion.  Our study looked at the impact of a specially designed mobile app (FanFit) as a digital health intervention for initiating and maintaining physical activity as part of football club membership. Our analysis indicates that app users will adopt healthier behaviours as a result of the app's sense of fan community and behaviour change.  The findings reported here are based on an implementation of the FanFit app and, in particular, on those who participated in a more in-depth study (n = 30). These participants were Rangers FC supporters with a mix of genders (n = 19 males and n = 11 females). Focus groups and interviews were conducted with participants to ascertain users' perspectives on the most effective methods for nudging users toward adopting and maintaining a pattern of fitness behaviours.  The findings show that the user community was interested in fitness and wanted to live a 'healthy lifestyle,' which was augmented and fuelled by the app's competitive architecture design. Furthermore, the data reveal a new fan-health discourse about a person's developing wants, talents, and identities as embodied beings.  We have developed and presented valid links between the use of sports club apps and health programmes. The app could be useful for sports programmes and club providers looking for mHealth applications that provide community support through fan discourse with opportunities for both male and female fans.



#14 A Descriptive Case Study of Skilled Football Goalkeepers During 1 v 1 Dyads: A Case for Adaptive Variability in the Quiet Eye

Reference: Front Psychol. 2022 Jul 7;13:908123. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2022.908123. eCollection 2022.

Authors: Benjamin Franks, William M Roberts, John Jakeman, Jonathan Swain, Keith Davids

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Summary: Evidence investigating skilled performers in sport suggests that a prominent component of skilled behavior is, in part, due to the development of more effective and efficient perception-action couplings. Further, the Quiet Eye has emerged as a useful tool in which to investigate how skilled performers regulate action through fixating on visual information within the immediate environment before the onset of a goal directed movement. However, only a few contributions to the literature have attempted to examine the individual variations within these Quiet Eye fixations in skilled participants. In this case study, we first asked how goalkeepers control their actions, via the Quiet Eye in a representative task. Second, we sought to examine whether inter- and intra- individual differences in the Quiet Eye are present in skilled goalkeepers as a functional component of skilled performance. Results were consistent with previous work on football goalkeepers, with QE fixations located at the ball and visual pivot. However, individual analysis reveals different Quiet Eye gaze patterning between (inter) and within (intra) the goalkeepers during saving actions. To conclude, we have provided a descriptive case study in attempt to understand the Quiet Eye behaviors of a skilled sample of professional goalkeepers. In doing so we have suggested how adaptive variability, founded upon an Ecological Dynamics framework, may provide further insight into the function of the Quiet Eye.



#15 Developing players for athlete leadership groups in professional football teams: Qualitative insights from head coaches and athlete leaders

Reference: PLoS One. 2022 Aug 3;17(8):e0271093. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0271093. eCollection 2022.

Authors: Gina Haddad, Donna O'Connor

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Summary: Athlete leadership groups (ALGs) are a widely used yet under researched approach to leadership in professional sports teams. Athlete Leadership Groups (ALGs) represent a shared athlete leadership model whereby a small group of players are selected as athlete leaders and appointed to a formal 'leadership group' (i.e., an ALG) that shares team leadership responsibilities with the coach. Although athlete leadership has been linked to improved team outcomes, inadequately trained athlete leaders can have a detrimental effect on team functioning and performance. The aim of this study was to provide coach and athlete leader's perceptions of the development opportunities that have been afforded to players to prepare them for their role in an ALG. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 head coaches and 14 players from leadership groups drawn from 17 teams across four professional football leagues (i.e., Super Rugby, National Rugby League, A League and Australian Football League) in Australia and New Zealand. Results illustrate that athlete leaders benefit from developing enhanced understanding of leadership as a multidimensional relational process, recognising various leadership styles, preferences, and how to leverage their influence with teammates. However, it is evident this theoretical knowledge alone is insufficient to equip players for a professional team ALG role. Players need opportunities to practice their developing leadership skills in authentic and appropriately challenging situations with support and facilitation. Findings point to the importance of systematic, individually tailored leadership development that includes scaffolded, structured experiential learning and meaningful interactions with other successful high-performance leaders. Further, this study reinforces the value of guided reflective practice in leadership development and how this process can enhance learning and transfer from leadership development initiatives. Finally, this study adds weight to calls from other researchers for coaches to be consistently intentional in employing leadership development strategies.



#16 Healthcare Data-Based Prediction Algorithm for Potential Knee Joint Injury of Football Players

Reference: J Healthc Eng. 2021 Nov 24;2021:3461648. doi: 10.1155/2021/3461648. eCollection 2021.

Authors: Yue Yu, Zi Ye

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Summary: It is important to predict the potential harm to the knee joint in order to prevent football players from inflicting numerous injuries to the knee during activity. Numerous professionals have been drawn to this subject, and many viable prediction systems have been developed. Prediction of potential knee joint injury is critical to effectively avoid knee joint injury during exercise. The current prediction algorithms are mainly implemented through expert interviews, medical reports, and historical documents. The algorithms have problems with low prediction accuracy or precision values. There is a need to understand more knee injury factors and improve the prediction accuracy; hence, the intelligent prediction algorithm for potential injury of knee joints of football players is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the characteristics of the knee joint injury and the injury factors of the football players are gathered and analyzed. Then, the damage is predicted by the similarity measurement. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has higher prediction accuracy and shorter time. According to the findings of a survey that collected healthcare data, several key factors contribute to football knee injuries. To a degree, this algorithm can predict the likelihood of a football player's knee injury.


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