Latest research in football - week 35 - 2021

As previous literature updates, I have performed a PubCrawler search looking for football articles in NCBI Medline (PubMed) and GenBank databases. 


Following studies were retrieved for this week:

#1 Effects of including endurance and speed sessions within small-sided soccer games periodization on physical fitness

Reference: Biol Sport. 2021 Jun;38(2):291-299.  doi: 10.5114/biolsport.2021.99325. Epub 2020 Oct 22.

Authors: Daniel Castillo, Javier Raya-González, Hugo Sarmento, Filipe Manuel Clemente, Javier Yanci

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Summary: The main aim of this study was to analyse the effects of including additional speed and endurance sessions during small-sided games (SSG) training periodization on physical fitness in professional soccer players. Sixteen outfield players (age = 25.6 ± 7.6 years) who competed in the First Division of a European League participated in this study. Players were randomly assigned to perform only the SSG periodization (G-SSG group) or to add endurance and speed training contents to the SSG (ES-SSG group). Before and after the 6-week experimental period, a Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test level 1 (YYIR1) and a 40 m sprinting test were performed. Rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was also measured after each training session. The G-SSG group showed a large improvement in the YYIR1 performance (p = 0.018-0.028; ES = 0.521-0.576) after the training programme, whereas no significant changes were observed for the ES-SSG group (p = 0.763-1.000; ES = 0.000-0.014). In addition, no significant differences (p > 0.05, ES = 0.005-361, trivial to small) in sprint performance at 5 and 10 m intervals up to 40 m were observed at post-training in comparison to pre-training evaluation in G-SSG and ES-SSG groups. No significant differences (p > 0.05) between groups were observed at baseline in the YYIR1 test. The 6-week SSG training supported with only six endurance and speed training sessions was no more effective than well-organized SSG alone for improving running endurance in professional soccer players.



#2 Performance and reference data in the jump squat at different relative loads in elite sprinters, rugby players, and soccer players

Reference: Biol Sport. 2021 Jun;38(2):219-227.  doi: 10.5114/biolsport.2020.98452. Epub 2020 Aug 31.

Authors: Irineu Loturco, Michael R McGuigan, Tomás T Freitas, Pedro L Valenzuela, Lucas A Pereira, Fernando Pareja-Blanco

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Summary: The aims of this study were to compare the outcomes and provide reference data for a set of barbell mechanical parameters collected via a linear velocity transducer in 126 male sprinters (n = 62), rugby players (n = 32), and soccer players (n = 32). Bar-velocity, bar-force, and bar-power outputs were assessed in the jump-squat exercise with jump-squat height determined from bar-peak velocity. The test started at a load of 40% of the athletes' body mass (BM), and a load of 10% of BM was gradually added until a clear decrement in the bar power was observed. Comparisons of bar variables among the three sports were performed using a one-way analysis of variance. Relative measures of bar velocity, force, and power, and jump-squat height were significantly higher in sprinters than in rugby (difference ranging between 5 and 35%) and soccer (difference ranging between 5 and 60%) players across all loads (40-110% of BM). Rugby players exhibited higher absolute bar-power (mean difference = 22%) and bar-force (mean difference = 16%) values than soccer players, but these differences no longer existed when the data were adjusted for BM (mean difference = 2.5%). Sprinters optimized their bar-power production at significantly greater relative loads (%BM) than rugby (mean difference = 22%) and soccer players (mean difference = 25%); nonetheless, all groups generated their maximum bar-power outputs at similar bar velocities. For the first time, we provided reference values for the jump-squat exercise for three different bar-velocity measures (i.e., mean, mean propulsive, and peak velocity) for sprinters, rugby players, and soccer players, over a wide range of relative loads. Practitioners can use these reference values to monitor their athletes and compare them with top-level sprinters and team-sport players.



#3 Effect of formation, ball in play and ball possession on peak demands in elite soccer

Reference: Biol Sport. 2021 Jun;38(2):195-205.  doi: 10.5114/biolsport.2020.98450. Epub 2020 Sep 1.

Authors: Andrea Riboli, Marco Semeria, Giuseppe Coratella, Fabio Esposito

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Summary: This study examined the most demanding passages of match play (MDP) and the effects of playing formation, ball-in-play (BiP) time and ball possession on the 1-min peak (1-minpeak) demand in elite soccer. During 18 official matches, 305 individual samples from 223 Italian Serie A soccer players were collected. MDP and 1-minpeak were calculated across playing position (central defenders, wide defenders, central midfielders, wide midfielders, wide forwards and forwards). Maximum relative (m·min-1) total distance (TD), high-speed running (HSR), very high-speed running (VHSR), sprint (SPR), acceleration/deceleration (Acc/Dec), estimated metabolic power (Pmet) and high-metabolic load (HML) distance were calculated across different durations (1-5, 10, 90 min) using a rolling method. Additionally, 1-minpeak demand was compared across playing formation (3-4-1-2, 3-4-2-1, 3-5-2, 4-3-3, 4-4-2), BiP and ball/no-ball possession cycles. MDP showed large to verylarge [effect-size (ES): 1.20/4.06] differences between 1-minpeak vs all durations for each parameter. In 1-minpeak, central midfielders and wide midfielders achieved greater TD and HSR (ES:0.43/1.13) while wide midfielders and wide forwards showed greater SPR and Acc/Dec (ES:0.30/1.15) than other positions. For VHSR, SPR and Acc/Dec 1-minpeak showed fourfold higher locomotor requirements than 90-min. 1-minpeak for Acc/Dec was highest in 4-3-3 for forwards, central and wide midfielders. 1-minPeak was lower during peak BiP (BiPpeak) for HSR, VHSR and Acc/Dec (ES: -2.57/-1.42). Comparing with vs without ball possession, BiPpeak was greater (ES: 0.06/1.48) in forwards and wide forwards and lower (ES: -2.12/-0.07) in central defenders and wide defenders. Positional differences in MDP, 1-minpeak and BiPpeak were observed. Soccer-specific drills should account for positional differences when conditioning players for the peak demands. This may help practitioners to bridge the training/match gap.



#4 Session-to-session variations in external load measures during small-sided games in professional soccer players

Reference: Biol Sport. 2021 Jun;38(2):185-193. doi: 10.5114/biolsport.2020.98449. Epub 2020 Aug 28.

Authors: Saeid Younesi, Alireza Rabbani, Filipe Manuel Clemente, Hugo Sarmento, António J Figueiredo

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Summary: The aims of this study were 1) to analyse session-to-session variations in different external load measures and 2) to examine differences in within-session intervals across different small-sided game (SSG) formats in professional players. Twenty professional soccer players (mean ± SD; age 28.1 ± 4.6 years, height 176.7 ± 4.9 cm, body mass 72.0 ± 7.8 kg, and body fat 10.3 ± 3.8%) participated in 3v3, 4v4, and 6v6 SSGs under different conditions (i.e., touch limitations and presence of goalkeepers vs. free touch and ball possession drill) over three sessions. Selected external load measures-including total distance (TD), high-intensity running (HIR, distance covered > 14.4 km.h-1), high-speed running (HSR, distance covered > 19.8 km.h-1), and mechanical work (MW, accelerations and deceleration > 2.2 m.s2)-were recorded using GPS technology during all SSG sessions. Small to large standardized typical errors were observed in session-to-session variations of selected measures across SSGs. TD.min-1 showed less variability, having a coefficient of variation (CV) of 2.2 to 4.6%, while all other selected external load measures had CV values ranging from 7.2% to 29.4%. Trivial differences were observed between intervals in TD.min-1 and HIR.min-1 for all SSGs, as well as in HSR.min-1 and MW.min-1 for most SSG formats. No reductions or incremental trends in session-to-session variations were observed when employing touch limitations or adding goalkeepers. The increased noise observed in higher speed zones (e.g., high-speed running) suggests a need for more controlled, running-based conditional drills if the aim is greater consistency in these measures.



#5 Effects of 1 vs. 2 sessions per week of equal-volume sprint training on explosive, high-intensity and endurance-intensive performances in young soccer players

Reference: Biol Sport. 2021 Jun;38(2):175-183.  doi: 10.5114/biolsport.2020.97675. Epub 2020 Aug 31.

Authors: Hamza Marzouki, Ibrahim Ouergui, Nidhal Doua, Nebil Gmada, Anissa Bouassida, Ezdine Bouhlel

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Summary: The study aimed to evaluate the effects of 1 vs. 2 sessions per week of equal-volume sprint training on explosive, high-intensity and endurance-intensive performances among young soccer players. Thirty-six young male soccer players were randomly divided into 2 experimental groups that performed either a single weekly sprint training session (ST1, n = 18, age: 17.2 ± 0.8 years) or two weekly sprint training sessions (ST2, n = 18; age: 17.1 ± 0.9 years) of equal weekly and total volume, in addition to their regular soccer training regimen. Linear sprinting (10 m, 20 m, 30 m, and flying 10 m), T-test agility, countermovement jump (CMJ) and maximal oxygen consumption were assessed one week before (T1), in the middle (T2) and immediately after the 10 weeks of training (T3). A large magnitude and statistically significant main effect for time was found in all the assessed variables after both training interventions (all p < 0.001; ES ≥ 0.80). No main effect was observed between the 2 groups at any time in linear sprinting, T-test or CMJ test (p > 0.05; ES < 0.20). A significant interaction effect (F = 4.05; p = 0.04, ES = 0.21) was found for maximal oxygen consumption with ST2 inducing better performance than ST1 (p = 0.001; ES = 1.11). Our findings suggested that the two sprint training frequencies were effective in enhancing explosive, high-intensity and endurance-intensive performances. However, it is recommended for coaches and fitness coaches to use a biweekly sprint training modality as it was found to be more effective in improving endurance-intensive performance.



#6 The first, second, and third most demanding passages of play in professional soccer: a longitudinal study

Reference: Biol Sport. 2021 Jun;38(2):165-174. doi: 10.5114/biolsport.2020.97674. Epub 2020 Aug 25.

Authors: José M Oliva-Lozano, Víctor Fortes, José M Muyor

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Summary: The study aimed to compare the physical demands required during the first, second, and third most demanding passages (MDP) of play considering the effect of playing position, type of passage, and passage duration. A longitudinal study for three mesocycles was conducted in a professional soccer team competing in LaLiga123. Tracking systems collected total distance covered (DIS), high-speed running distance (HSRD), sprinting distance (SPD), total of high-intensity accelerations (ACCHIGH), and total of high-intensity decelerations (DECHIGH). The results confirmed that a significant effect of the type of passage (first, second or third MDP of play) on DIS (F(1.24, 178.89) = 115.53; p = 0.01; ηp2 = 0.45), HSRD (F(1.35, 195.36) = 422.82; p = 0.01; ηp2 = 0.75), SPD (F(1.43, 206.59) = 299.99; p = 0.01; ηp2 = 0.68), ACCHIGH (F(1.45, 209.38) = 268.59; p = 0.01; ηp2 = 0.65), and DECHIGH (F(1.45, 209.38) = 324.88; p = 0.01; ηp2 = 0.69) was found. In addition, a significant interaction between playing position, type and duration of the passage was observed in DIS (F(12.60, 453.47) = 1.98; p = 0.02; ηp2 = 0.05) and ACCHIGH (F(13.99, 503.78) = 1.92; p = 0.03; ηp2 = 0.06). In conclusion, significant differences in physical demands between the first, second, and third MDP of play were observed. However, there were some cases (DIS and ACCHIGH) in which no significant differences were found between these passages. Therefore, coaches should consider not only the magnitude of these peak intensity periods (e.g., distance covered per minute) but also the number of passages that players may experience during match play.



#7 Mucoid degeneration of the posterior cruciate ligament in a college soccer player: a case report

Reference: J Med Case Rep. 2021 Jun 3;15(1):284.  doi: 10.1186/s13256-021-02893-4.

Authors: Ryo Kanto, Hiroshi Nakayama, Tomoya Iseki, Shintaro Onishi, Ryo Iwakura, Shinichi Yoshiya, Toshiya Tachibana

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Summary: To the best of our knowledge, arthroscopic treatment for symptomatic mucoid degeneration of the posterior cruciate ligament in young athletes has not been reported before. An 18-year-old Asian male college soccer player presented with a 3-month history of right knee pain without episodes of trauma. Despite conservative treatment over the preceding 3 months, his symptoms persisted. Physical examination of the right knee revealed full range of motion, though posterior knee pain was induced when the knee approached full flexion. On ligament examination, posterior sagging and Lachman test were negative, and no clinical finding indicative of ligament insufficiency was noted. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a diffusely thickened posterior cruciate ligament with increased signal intensity on the T2-weighted sequence. A few intact fibers were observed with continuous margin from origin to insertion. Based on the patient's history and the magnetic resonance imaging findings, we suspected mucoid degeneration of the posterior cruciate ligament as the cause of the patient's symptoms. Since conservative treatment had failed to relieve the symptoms, arthroscopic treatment was indicated. Arthroscopic examination revealed yellowish crumbly tissues along the thickened posterior cruciate ligament. Tension and bulk of the posterior cruciate ligament were well preserved. Curettage of degenerative tissue and decompression of the posterior cruciate ligament resulted in symptom relief without instability of the knee joint. The patient returned to play at 3 months. At 12 months, postoperative magnetic resonance imaging showed no evidence of recurrence and indicated that the remaining posterior cruciate ligament was thicker than before the surgery. At 2 years follow-up, the patient remained asymptomatic and could play soccer at the same level as before the onset of pain.



#8 Testosterone, cortisol, vitamin D and oxydative stress and their relationships in professional soccer players

Reference: J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2021 Jun 1. doi: 10.23736/S0022-4707.21.12094-8. Online ahead of print.

Authors: Michele Abate, Luigi DI Carlo, Giulio Cocco, Antonino Cocco, Vincenzo Salini

Summary: The testosterone/cortisol ratio has been used in sport physiology to evaluate the balance between anabolism and catabolism; its decrease below 30% has been considered a marker of overtraining. In this framework recent studies in soccer players have investigated the relationships between testosterone, cortisol, vitamin D and reactive oxygen species, but with unconvincing results. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the behavior of such biological parameters and their relationships both in winter (the season of championship) and in summer (off-competition season), characterized by different homeostatic situations. Twenty-seven professional male football players (Second Italian Division), were studied. Blood levels of free testosterone, cortisol, vitamin D and reactive oxygen species were evaluated in August (pre-season training) and in February, in the midseason. A comparison between these two periods was performed and for each of them the relationships between the biological parameters were evaluated. Blood levels of testosterone were higher during summer whereas those of cortisol were higher in winter. Vitamin D levels were higher in summer; in this season a positive significant relationship between vitamin D and testosterone was observed (p=0.001), but not in winter (p=0.592). Reactive oxygen species were higher in winter; in this season a significant positive relationship between these substances and cortisol was observed (0.000), but not in summer (p=0.325). In professional soccer players it was found a positive relationship between vitamin D and testosterone in summer and between reactive oxygen species and cortisol in winter. However the question whether such results are genuine cause-effect relationships or mere casual or spurious statistical correlations is still unsolved. As matter of fact, such results could be dependent from other determinants which might drive the aforementioned biological parameters in the same direction. These conclusions must be considered valid only in relation to the experimental conditions (training workload, diet and sun exposure) of the present study.



#9 Relationship of regional and whole body morphology to vertical jump in elite soccer players: a data-driven approach

Reference: J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2021 Jun 1. doi: 10.23736/S0022-4707.21.12323-0. Online ahead of print.

Authors: Tindaro Bongiovanni, Alessio Rossi, F Marcello Iaia, Angela DI Baldassarre, Giulio Pasta, Paolo Manetti, Giampietro Alberti, Athos Trecroci

Summary: This study aimed to analyse the relationship of regional and whole body morphology to vertical jump performance and to compare the morphological features outlining high and low performers in professional soccer players. Twenty-one male soccer players were recruited. Whole and regional (upper and lower limbs) features were obtained in the form of body dimensional measurements. Then, all players were tested for vertical jump performance. A data-driven approach was used to group players according to their jump performance parameters (high vs low). The regional morphological features presented higher correlations with vertical jump than whole body features. High and low performers were significantly different among upperand lower-limb morphology. No differences were observed among whole body features. These findings indicate that, rather than the whole body, the use of morphological features linked to specific body regions may ensure a better interpretation of the soccer players' physical potential in jump performance.



#10 The role of pre-season health characteristics as injury risk factors in female adolescent soccer players

Reference: J Phys Ther Sci. 2021 May;33(5):439-443. doi: 10.1589/jpts.33.439. Epub 2021 May 15.

Authors: Brent Harper, Adrian Aron, Emmanuel John

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Summary: Determine if female adolescent soccer players with a history of concussion, impaired K-D scores, and pre-season subjective complaints of neck pain, dizziness, and headache were predisposed to additional risk of musculoskeletal or concussive injury during 10-weeks of competitive play. [Participants and Methods] Twenty-three female high school soccer athletes provided concussion history and reported pre-season subjective complaints. K-D testing was performed pre and postseason. During the 10-week season, all injuries, preventing participation in practice or game, were recorded. [Results] Six reported a history of concussion. Of those six, three injuries were reported, including two concussions and a hamstring strain. Baseline K-D scores were worse in athletes that had two or more pre-season subjective factors compared to those that did not have any. Moderate positive correlations were found between a history of concussion and the number of injuries and a history of concussion and K-D post-test scores. [Conclusion] Findings indicate that pre-season subjective factors of neck pain, dizziness and headache, history of concussion, and K-D potentially increased injury risk. Combining pre-season metrics both at baseline and during the course of the season may assist in better injury risk screening in-season or indicate suboptimal function due to cumulative effects.



#11 The relation between neck strength and psychological distress: preliminary evidence from collegiate soccer athletes

Reference: Concussion. 2021 May 14;6(2):CNC91. doi: 10.2217/cnc-2020-0023.

Authors: Tara Porfido, Nicola L de Souza, Allison M Brown, Jennifer F Buckman, Brian D Fanning Jr, James S Parrott, Carrie Esopenko

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Summary: The aim was to examine whether neck strength and symmetry are associated with psychological function in athletes with exposure to repetitive head impacts. Collegiate soccer (n = 29) and limited/noncontact (n = 63) athletes without a history of concussion completed the Brief Symptom Inventory 18 and assessments of isometric neck strength. Neck strength symmetry was calculated as the difference in strength between opposing muscle groups. The results demonstrated that lower neck strength was associated with more symptoms of anxiety, whereas asymmetry in neck strength was associated with more symptoms of somatization and depression in soccer athletes only. These preliminary results suggest that greater neck strength/symmetry is related to better psychological function in athletes who have higher exposure to repetitive head impacts.



#12 Short-Term Periodized Programming May Improve Strength, Power, Jump Kinetics, and Sprint Efficiency in Soccer

Reference: J Funct Morphol Kinesiol. 2021 May 24;6(2):45. doi: 10.3390/jfmk6020045.

Authors: Ai Ishida, S Kyle Travis, Michael H Stone

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Summary: The purpose of this study was to examine if short-term periodized programming may improve strength, power, jump kinetics, and sprint efficiency in soccer. Seventeen players (19.6 ± 1.6 yrs; 73.8 ± 8.2 kg; 1.77 ± 0.6 m) were divided into two groups based on mean isometric midthigh pull peak force (IPF) (stronger and weaker) and squat jump (SJ) peak power (PP) (higher power and lower power). Eight weaker players were included in the lower power group, while six stronger players were included in the higher power group. Block periodization was adopted to design strength training consisting of 3-week strength endurance and 4-week maximum strength blocks. Performance data included SJ with polyvinyl chloride pipe (SJ0), 20 kgs bar (SJ20), and 40 kgs (SJ40) bar and 20 m sprint across three time points (baseline: TB; post-block 1: T1; post-block 2: T2). Stronger group showed significant increases from TB to T2 in SJ20 peak power (PP), net impulse, and allometrically-scaled PP (p = 0.005 to 0.01, ES = 0.32 to 0.49). Weaker group demonstrated moderate to large increases from TB to T2 in SJ20, allometrically-scaled peak force (PF), PP, and allometrically-scaled PP (p = <0.001 to 0.04, ES = 1.41 to 1.74). Lower power group showed significant increases from TB to T2 in SJ20 allometrically-scaled PF, net impulse, PP, and allometrically-scaled PP (p = <0.001 to 0.026, ES = 1.06 to 2.01). Weaker and less powerful soccer players can benefit from strength-focused training to improve loaded SJ kinetics associating with force production.



#13 A Comparison of Match Demands Using Ball-in-Play versus Whole Match Data in Professional Soccer Players of the English Championship

Reference: Sports (Basel). 2021 May 26;9(6):76. doi: 10.3390/sports9060076.

Authors: Dylan Mernagh, Anthony Weldon, Josh Wass, John Phillips, Nimai Parmar, Mark Waldron, Anthony Turner

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Summary: This is the first study to report the whole match, ball-in-play (BiP), ball-out-of-play (BoP), and Max BiP (worst case scenario phases of play) demands of professional soccer players competing in the English Championship. Effective playing time per soccer game is typically <60 min. When the ball is out of play, players spend time repositioning themselves, which is likely less physically demanding. Consequently, reporting whole match demands may under-report the physical requirements of soccer players. Twenty professional soccer players, categorized by position (defenders, midfielders, and forwards), participated in this study. A repeated measures design was used to collect Global Positioning System (GPS) data over eight professional soccer matches in the English Championship. Data were divided into whole match and BiP data, and BiP data were further sub-divided into different time points (30-60 s, 60-90 s, and >90 s), providing peak match demands. Whole match demands recorded were compared to BiP and Max BiP, with BiP data excluding all match stoppages, providing a more precise analysis of match demands. Whole match metrics were significantly lower than BiP metrics (p < 0.05), and Max BiP for 30-60 s was significantly higher than periods between 60-90 s and >90 s. No significant differences were found between positions. BiP analysis allows for a more accurate representation of the game and physical demands imposed on professional soccer players. Through having a clearer understanding of maximum game demands in professional soccer, practitioners can design more specific training methods to better prepare players for worst case scenario passages of play.



#14 Sleep Quality in Chilean Professional Soccer Players

Reference: Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021 May 29;18(11):5866. doi: 10.3390/ijerph18115866.

Authors: Carlos Jorquera-Aguilera, Guillermo Barahona-Fuentes, María José Pérez Peña, María Mercedes Yeomans Cabrera, Álvaro Huerta Ojeda

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Summary: Recent research has shown that good sleep quality has a positive effect on physical performance. However, sleep quality in Chilean professional soccer players is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine sleep quality in Chilean professional soccer players. It was a cross-sectional, explanatory study with observable variables. The sample consisted of 94 Chilean male soccer players belonging to four professional clubs. The main variable was the Sleep Quality Index, evaluated through the Pittsburgh questionnaire (Spanish version). After estimating sleep quality individually, the four professional soccer clubs' comparison was performed through a one-factor ANOVA. The Pearson test was used to relate the questionnaire variables; the significance level was p < 0.05. In the global analysis of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, a value of 4.75 ± 2.29 on a scale of 0-21 was observed, with no significant differences between the clubs evaluated (p > 0.05). Based on the results obtained, Chilean male professional soccer players present good sleep quality. However, the high values of "sleep latency" and "sleep disturbances" are indicators that should be worked on by the multidisciplinary team of each professional club. They should develop strategies to improve sleep hygiene, encourage good sleep, and fall asleep efficiently.



#15 Relationship between Respiratory Muscle Function and Postural Stability in Male Soccer Players: A Case-Control Study

Reference: Healthcare (Basel). 2021 May 29;9(6):644. doi: 10.3390/healthcare9060644.

Authors: Felipe León-Morillas, Carlos Lozano-Quijada, Miguel Ángel Lérida-Ortega, Martha Cecilia León-Garzón, Alfonso Javier Ibáñez-Vera, Silvana Loana de Oliveira-Sousa

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Summary: The important role of postural stability in exercise performance has been determined by several authors. Despite this, few studies have analyzed the relationship between respiratory muscles' strength and postural stability in athletes. For this reason, the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between postural stability and respiratory muscles' function in male soccer players. A case-control study was conducted over twenty-eight healthy men (18 soccer players; 10 non-athletes). Inspiratory muscle strength (MIP) and respiratory resistance (MVV) were obtained through a digital spirometer. Stability variables were obtained in standing position on a stabilometric platform and in open and closed eyes conditions. The area and length of the center of pressures and displacements in the X and Y range were analyzed. Pearson's coefficient was used to measure the linear correlation between MIP, MVV and stabilometric variables. In the soccer players' group, MIP and MIP % predictive were inversely correlated with length (r = -0.535 and r = -0.585; p < 0.05) and X range (r = -0.527 and r = -0.560; p < 0.05), whereas MVV was directly correlated with length (r = 0.606; p < 0.01) and Y range (r = 0.558; p < 0.05). Our results show that the greater the inspiratory muscle strength, the less displacement of the pressure center, while at higher respiratory rates there is greater displacement.


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