Latest research in football - week 34 - 2019

As previous literature updates, I have performed a PubCrawler search looking for football articles in NCBI Medline (PubMed) and GenBank databases.

Following studies were retrieved for this week:

#1 Eccentric-concentric Ratio: A Key Factor for Defining Strength Training in Soccer
Reference: Int J Sports Med. 2019 Aug 21. doi: 10.1055/a-0977-5478. [Epub ahead of print]
Authors: Nuñez FJ, Hoyo M, López AM, Sañudo B, Otero-Esquina C, Sanchez H, Gonzalo-Skok O
Summary: The aims of this study were to analyse the effect of chronic strength training over concentric power (CON), eccentric power (ECC), ECC/CON ratio, and 20 m linear sprint performance in elite young soccer players. Twenty young elite Spanish soccer players were assigned to an experimental group (CPG) which performed a front-step exercise using a conical pulley, 2-3 sets of 6 repetitions each leg, during 9 weeks (CPG, n=10) in addition to its usual strength training, or to a control group (CG, n=10). The improvements in the ECC mean power (36%, ES=1.61), and ECC / CON ratio (17%, ES=1.77) were substantially greater in the CPG than in the CG while the CON mean power (16%, ES=0.83) was substantially greater in the CG than in the CPG. The sprinting time for 10 m (2.8%, ES=0.78) and the 10 m flying time between 10-20 m (1.72%, ES=0.41) were substantially enhanced in CPG and CG respectively. To be efficient when defining a functional strength training and performance increments using an inertial device, the mean power output need to be measured during the CON and ECC phases and an analysis of the ECC / CON ratio should be included.


#2 Progressive strength training restores quadriceps and hamstring muscle strength within 7 months after ACL reconstruction in amateur male soccer players
Reference: Phys Ther Sport. 2019 Aug 9;40:10-18. doi: 10.1016/j.ptsp.2019.08.004. [Epub ahead of print]
Authors: Welling W, Benjaminse A, Lemmink K, Dingenen B, Gokeler A
Summary: The purpose of the current study was to compare the results of a progressive strength training protocol for soccer players after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) with healthy controls, and to investigate the effects of the strength training protocol on peak quadriceps and hamstring muscle strength. Thirty-eight amateur male soccer players after ACLR were included. Thirty age-matched amateur male soccer players served as control group. Quadriceps and hamstring muscle strength was measured at three time points during the rehabilitation. Limb symmetry index (LSI) > 90% was used as cut-off criteria. Soccer players after ACLR had no significant differences in peak quadriceps and hamstring muscle strength in the injured leg at 7 months after ACLR compared to the dominant leg of the control group. Furthermore, 65.8% of soccer players after ACLR passed LSI >90% at 10 months for quadriceps muscle strength. Amateur male soccer players after ACLR can achieve similar quadriceps and hamstring muscle strength at 7 months compared to healthy controls. These findings highlight the potential of progressive strength training in rehabilitation after ACLR that may mitigate commonly reported strength deficits.


#3 Analysis of Playing Area Dimensions in Spanish Professional Soccer: Extrapolation to the Design of Small-Sided Games With Tactical Applications
Reference: J Strength Cond Res. 2019 Aug 15. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0000000000003226. [Epub ahead of print]
Authors: Caro O, Zubillaga A, Fradua L, Fernandez-Navarro J
Summary: The aims of this study were to examine (a) the width and length dimensions of the playing area in 4v4 situations during competition, (b) the influence of the pitch zone where the ball is on 4v4 dimensions, and (c) the influence of match status on the dimensions of 4v4 situations. Data were collected from 25 matches from the Spanish La Liga of the 2007-2008 season using the Amisco system. Length, width, and individual playing area (IPA) of the rectangle that included the nearest 4 players to the ball from each team were collected in a total of 8,727 4v4 game situations. The pitch zone and match status were also considered for these 4v4 situations. To determine factors that affect 4v4 game situations, 1-way analysis of variance was used. The influence of the pitch zone where 4v4 situations took place showed significant differences (p < 0.001) between the zones where different principles of the game apply. The areas of the 4v4 situations ranged from 14.70 ± 4.69 × 17.18 ± 6 to 17.09 ± 5.16 × 20.34 ± 5.93 m, and the IPA of the 4v4 playing rectangle ranged from 46.33 ± 20 to 35.48 ± 16.95 m, being larger in the central zones of the pitch. The length of the 4v4 rectangle showed a significant reduction in the closer zones to the goal. Match status did not affect the dimensions of these 4v4 game situations significantly. The findings of this study suggest that the size of 4v4 situations proposed for training should be designed according to the pitch zone where playing actions take place.


#4 Augmented-Feedback Training Improves Cognitive Motor Performance of Soccer Players
Reference: Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2019 Aug 16. doi: 10.1249/MSS.0000000000002118. [Epub ahead of print]
Authors: Hicheur H, Chauvin A, Cavin V, Fuchslocher J, Tschopp M, Taube W
Summary: In this study, we tested the hypothesis that augmented feedback (AF) training can improve both perceptual-cognitive and/or motor skills specific to soccer. Three groups of young elite players (U14-U15 categories) performed a test consisting in passing the ball as accurately and as quickly as possible towards a visual target moving briefly across a large screen located at 6 meters from the player. The performed task required players to correctly perceive the target, anticipate its future location and to adequately adjust the pass direction and power. The control group (CON) performed normal soccer training and was compared with two visuomotor training groups (AF and No-Feedback NF) that followed the same training regime but integrated series of 32 passes three times per week over a seventeen-day period into their normal soccer training. Objective measurements of the passing performance were provided using a high-technology system (COGNIFOOT) prior to, during and after training. During training, only players of the AF-group received visuo-auditory feedback immediately after each trial informing them about the accuracy of their passes. The results show that only players of the AF-group significantly improved passing accuracy, reactiveness, and global passing performance (+22 %) whereas the NF-group only improved passing accuracy. None of these parameters was improved in the CON-group. The objectively measured changes in passing performance were compared to the more subjectively judged passing performance provided by coaches and players. Coaches' judgments were more reliable than players' judgments and exhibited a training group effect comparable to the ones objectively measured by COGNIFOOT. This study provides evidence that the training of cognitive motor performance in soccer players highly benefits from the use of augmented feedback.


#5 Effects of mental fatigue on passing decision-making performance in professional soccer athletes
Reference: Eur J Sport Sci. 2019 Aug 19:1-21. doi: 10.1080/17461391.2019.1656781. [Epub ahead of print]
Authors: Gantois P, Caputo Ferreira ME, Lima-Junior D, Nakamura FY, Batista GR, Fonseca FS, de Sousa Fortes L
Summary: The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of mental fatigue on passing decision-making in professional soccer athletes. A controlled and counterbalanced cross-over design was adopted consisting of three visits with a 1-week interval between sessions. Twenty (20) professional soccer male athletes participated in three randomized conditions divided into three visits: control, 15-min Stroop task, and 30-min Stroop task. Inhibitory control was accessed by the Stroop task (accuracy and response time) before and after induced mental fatigue protocol. The athletes played a training match (90-min) following the experimental conditions. The Game Performance Assessment Instrument (GPAI) was used for the passing decision-making analysis. The GPAI analysis showed impaired passing decision-making performance following the 30-min Stroop task compared with the 15-min and control condition (F(2,17) = 6.99, p = .01). Moreover, an increase in response time during the Stroop task was found following 30-min Stroop task condition (F(2,17) = 6.57, p = .03) compared to 15-min of Stroop task and control conditions. Prolonged cognitive tasks may be considered a mediating factor in passing decision-making performance in male professional soccer athletes throughout a full-length training match. Thus, athletes should avoid highly demanding-cognitive tasks before a soccer match. Future studies are required to explore more ecological cognitive tasks to induce mental fatigue (i.e. smartphones and video-games) and their effects on other performance indicators (e.g., physical, technical, tactical) in a full-length training match setting.


#6 Using differential ratings of perceived exertion to assess agreement between coach and player perceptions of soccer training intensity: An exploratory investigation
Reference: J Sports Sci. 2019 Aug 19:1-6. doi: 10.1080/02640414.2019.1653423. [Epub ahead of print]
Authors: Macpherson TW, McLaren SJ, Gregson W, Lolli L, Drust B, Weston M
Summary: We aimed to assess the coach-player agreement of subjective soccer training loads via differential ratings of perceived exertion (dRPE). The coach initially underwent quantifiable familiarisation (blackness test) with the Borg CR100 scale. Data were collected from 16 semi-professional soccer players across seven consecutive training sessions. For the measurement of subjective training load, the coach and players provided dRPE (CR100) for legs (RPE-L), breathlessness (RPE-B) and technical exertion (RPE-T). Coach-prescribed dRPE were recorded prior to training, with coach observed and player reported dRPE collected post training. Statistical equivalence bounds for agreement between coach (prescribed and observed) and player reported dRPE scores were 4 arbitrary units on the CR100 and we used a probability outcome of likely (≥75%) to infer realistic equivalence. Following three familiarisation sessions, the coach improved their blackness test score from 39% to 83%. Coach observed and player reported RPE-T scores were likely equivalent, with all other comparisons not realistically equivalent. Since training prescription is coach-led, our data highlight the importance of accurate internal load measurement and feedback in soccer. The improved accuracy and precision of coach intensity estimation after three attempts at the blackness test suggests that this method could be worthwhile to researchers and practitioners employing dRPE.


#7 The effects of detraining and retraining periods on fat-mass and fat-free mass in elite male soccer players
Reference: PeerJ. 2019 Aug 13;7:e7466. doi: 10.7717/peerj.7466. eCollection 2019.
Authors: Suarez-Arrones L, Lara-Lopez P, Maldonado R, Torreno N, De Hoyo M, Nakamura FY, Di Salvo V, Mendez-Villanueva A
Download link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6697042/pdf/peerj-07-7466.pdf
Summary: The aim of the study was to examine the effects of a detraining period (DTP) (i.e., off-season) with an individually prescribed training program, and a retraining period (RTP) (i.e., pre-season) combining soccer and flywheel-based strength training on fat-free mass (FFM) and fat-mass (FM) in 10 elite professional male soccer players. The present study used a controlled repeated-measures research design to investigate the changes in FFM and FM using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Whole body %FM increased (effect size (ES) = 0.87 ± 0.46) and FFM reduced after DTP (ES = -0.30 ± 0.19), returning to values comparable to the end of the previous season after RTP. At regional levels, arms, legs, and trunk %FM increased (ES = from 0.42 to 1.29) while trunk-FFM was reduced (ES = -0.40 ± 0.26) after DTP, returning to the values observed at the end of the previous season after RTP. Legs-FFM did not change after DTP, with a substantial increase after RTP in comparison with pre-season values (ES = 0.34 ± 0.29 and 0.53 ± 0.36 for the right and left leg, respectively). Despite the small sample size of the present study, the findings indicate that elite soccer players can be allowed 2 weeks of rest during a five-week DTP, since the changes in %FM and FFM were relatively small, and FM and FFM returned to the optimal initial values for competition after the proposed RTP during the pre-season.


#8 The Effects of a Single Versus Three Consecutive Sessions of Football Training on Postprandial Lipemia: a Randomized, Controlled Trial in Healthy, Recreationally Active Males
Reference: Sports Med Open. 2019 Aug 22;5(1):38. doi: 10.1186/s40798-019-0212-1.
Authors: Paul DJ, Bangsbo J, Cherif A, Nassis GP
Download link: https://sportsmedicine-open.springeropen.com/track/pdf/10.1186/s40798-019-0212-1
Summary: Exercise frequency is important for maintaining health; however, its effects on postprandial responses remain largely unknown. Better understanding this during popular sports activities such as football may influence exercise habits. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the effects of playing one single versus three consecutive days of 60-min small-sided football matches on postprandial lipemia. Fifteen males performed either one (1FOOT; n = 7) or three 60-min football (3FOOT; n = 8) sessions across an 8-day trial period. On day 1, a blood sample was collected at fasted (0 min) and 0.75, 2, 4, 6 h after a high-fat meal. Participants were then randomly allocated to the 1FOOT (day 7) or 3FOOT (days 5, 6, 7) condition. On day 8, they repeated the high-fat meal and blood sampling for 6 h following the meal. Postprandial total and incremental area under the curve (AUC, iAUC, respectively) were calculated. The postprandial triglyceride iAUC was 41% lower from pre- to post-measures for the 1FOOT (p < 0.05; ES = 1.02) and 15.7% lower for the 3FOOT (ns; ES = 0.41). Total triglyceride AUC was lower (26%) post-football matches in the 3FOOT group only (p < 0.01; ES = 1.23). In 3FOOT, insulin concentration was lower for post- compared to pre-measures at 0.75 and 2 h, respectively (p < 0.001). One single 60-min small-sided football match lowered postprandial TG incremental area under the curve while performing three consecutive days of football matches did not result in a greater attenuation.


#9 The Dependence of Running Speed and Muscle Strength on the Serum Concentration of Vitamin D in Young Male Professional Football Players Residing in the Russian Federation
Reference: Nutrients. 2019 Aug 21;11(9). pii: E1960. doi: 10.3390/nu11091960.
Authors: Bezuglov E, Tikhonova A, Zueva A, Khaitin V, Lyubushkina A, Achkasov E, Waśkiewicz Z, Gerasimuk D, Żebrowska A, Nikolaidis PT, Rosemann T, Knechtle B
Download link: https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/11/9/1960/pdf
Summary: Vitamin D insufficiency is prevalent among athletes, and it can negatively affect physical performance. At the same time, most of the available data were obtained from untrained individuals of various ages, and published studies performed in athletes led to contradictory conclusions. This cohort prospective study examined the serum concentration of 25-hydroxycalciferol (25(OH)D) and its association with running speed and muscle power in 131 young football players (mean age 15.6 ± 2.4 years). 25(OH)D levels were below reference in 42.8% (serum 25(OH)D <30 ng/mL) and above reference in 30.5% of the participants (serum 25(OH)D 61-130 ng/mL). A comparison of the results of 5, 15, and 30 m sprint tests and the standing long jump test found no statistically significant differences between the two groups. Athletes from the 25(OH)D-insufficient group were treated with 5000 IU cholecalciferol supplement daily for 60 days. After the treatment, the 25(OH)D concentration increased by 79.2% and was within reference in 84% of the treated athletes (serum 25(OH)D 30-60 ng/mL). Testing was repeated after the end of treatment, and a statistically significant increase in the results of the 5, 15, and 30 m sprint tests was observed (Cohen's d was 0.46, 0.33, and 0.34, respectively), while the results of the standing long jump test remained unchanged. Body height, body weight, and lean body mass of the football players also increased. These findings indicate that there is likely no correlation between serum levels of 25(OH)D, muscle power, and running speed in young professional football players, and the changes observed post-treatment might have been caused by changes in the anthropometric parameters. During the study, all the anthropometric parameters changed, but the amount of lean body mass only correlated with the results of the 5 m sprint.


#10 Extracting spatial-temporal features that describe a team match demands when considering the effects of the quality of opposition in elite football
Reference: PLoS One. 2019 Aug 22;14(8):e0221368. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0221368. eCollection 2019.
Authors: Gonçalves B, Coutinho D, Exel J, Travassos B, Lago C, Sampaio J
Download link: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0221368
Summary: Spatiotemporal patterns of play can be extracted from competitive environments to design representative training tasks and underlying processes that sustain performance outcomes. To support this statement, the aims of this study were: (i) describe the collective behavioural patterns that relies upon the use of player positioning in interaction with teammates, opponents and ball positioning; (ii) and define the underlying structure among the variables through application of a factorial analysis. The sample comprised a total of 1,413 ball possession sequences, obtained from twelve elite football matches from one team (the team ended the season in the top-5 position). The dynamic position of the players (from both competing teams), as well as the ball, were captured and transformed to two-dimensional coordinates. Data included the ball possession sequences from six matches played against top opponents (TOP, the three teams classified in the first 3 places at the end of the season) and six matches against bottom opponents (BOTTOM, the three teams classified in the last 3 at the end of the season). The variables calculated for each ball possession were the following: ball position; team space in possession; game space (comprising the outfield players of both teams); position and space at the end of ball possession. Statistical comparisons were carried with magnitude-based decisions and null-hypothesis analysis and factor analysis to define the underlying structure among variables according to the considered contexts. Results showed that playing against TOP opponents, there was ~38 meters game length per ~43 meters game width with 12% of coefficient of variation (%). Ball possessions lasted for ~28 seconds and tended to end at ~83m of pitch length. Against BOTTOM opponents, a decrease in the game length with an increase in game width and in the deepest location was observed in comparison with playing against TOP opponents. The duration of ball possession increased considerable (~37 seconds), and the ball speed entropy was higher, suggesting lower levels of regularity in comparison with TOP opponents. The BOTTOM teams revealed a small EPS. The Principal Component Analysis showed a strong association of the ball speed, entropy of the ball speed and the coefficient of variation (%) of the ball speed. The EPS of the team in possession was well correlated with the game space, especially the game width facing TOP opponents. Against BOTTOM opponents, there was a strong association of ball possession duration, game width, distance covered by the ball, and length/width ratio of the ball movement. The overall approach carried out in this study may serve as the starting point to elaborate normative models of positioning behaviours measures to support the coaches' operating decisions.


#11 Physical and Tactical Demands of the Goalkeeper in Football in Different Small-Sided Games
Reference: Sensors (Basel). 2019 Aug 19;19(16). pii: E3605. doi: 10.3390/s19163605.
Authors: Jara D, Ortega E, Gómez-Ruano MÁ, Weigelt M, Nikolic B, Sainz de Baranda P
Download link: https://www.mdpi.com/1424-8220/19/16/3605/pdf
Summary: Several studies have examined the differences between the different small-sided game (SSG) formats. However, only one study has analysed how the different variables that define SSGs can modify the goalkeeper's behavior. The aim of the present study was to analyze how the modification of the pitch size in SSGs affects the physical demands of the goalkeepers. Three professional male football goalkeepers participated in this study. Three different SSG were analysed (62 m × 44 m for a large pitch; 50 m × 35 m for a medium pitch and 32 m × 23 m for a small pitch). Positional data of each goalkeeper was gathered using an 18.18 Hz global positioning system. The data gathered was used to compute players' spatial exploration index, standard ellipse area, prediction ellipse area The distance covered, distance covered in different intensities and accelerations/decelerations were used to assess the players' physical performance. There were differences between small and large SSGs in relation to the distances covered at different intensities and pitch exploration. Intensities were lower when the pitch size was larger. Besides that, the pitch exploration variables increased along with the increment of the pitch size.


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