Latest research in football - week 32 - 2019

As previous literature updates, I have performed a PubCrawler search looking for football articles in NCBI Medline (PubMed) and GenBank databases.

Following studies were retrieved for this week:

#1 Effects of Neuromuscular Training on Agility Performance in Elite Soccer Players
Reference: Front Physiol. 2019 Jul 23;10:947. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2019.00947. eCollection 2019.
Authors: Zouhal H, Abderrahman AB, Dupont G, Truptin P, Le Bris R, Le Postec E, Sghaeir Z, Brughelli M, Granacher U, Bideau B
Download link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6664050/pdf/fphys-10-00947.pdf
Summary: Agility in general and change-of-direction speed (CoD) in particular represent important performance determinants in elite soccer. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of a 6-week neuromuscular training program on agility performance, and to determine differences in movement times between the slower and faster turning directions in elite soccer players. Twenty male elite soccer players from the Stade Rennais Football Club (Ligue 1, France) participated in this study. The players were randomly assigned to a neuromuscular training group (NTG, n = 10) or an active control (CG, n = 10) according to their playing position. NTG participated in a 6-week, twice per week neuromuscular training program that included CoD, plyometric and dynamic stability exercises. Neuromuscular training replaced the regular warm-up program. Each training session lasted 30 min. CG continued their regular training program. Training volume was similar between groups. Before and after the intervention, the two groups performed a reactive agility test that included 180° left and right body rotations followed by a 5-m linear sprint. The weak side was defined as the left/right turning direction that produced slower overall movement times (MT). Reaction time (RT) was assessed and defined as the time from the first appearance of a visual stimulus until the athlete's first movement. MT corresponded to the time from the first movement until the athlete reached the arrival gate (5 m distance). No significant between-group baseline differences were observed for RT or MT. Significant group x time interactions were found for MT (p = 0.012, effect size = 0.332, small) for the slower and faster directions (p = 0.011, effect size = 0.627, moderate). Significant pre-to post improvements in MT were observed for NTG but not CG (p = 0.011, effect size = 0.877, moderate). For NTG, post hoc analyses revealed significant MT improvements for the slower (p = 0.012, effect size = 0.897, moderate) and faster directions (p = 0.017, effect size = 0.968, moderate). Our results illustrate that 6 weeks of neuromuscular training with two sessions per week included in the warm-up program, significantly enhanced agility performance in elite soccer players. Moreover, improvements were found on both sides during body rotations. Thus, practitioners are advised to focus their training programs on both turning directions.


#2 A Meta-Analysis of Meta-Analyses of the Effectiveness of FIFA Injury Prevention Programmes in Soccer
Reference: Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2019 Aug 8. doi: 10.1111/sms.13535. [Epub ahead of print]
Authors: Al Attar WSA, Alshehri MA
Summary: FIFA has a Medical and Research Centre (F-MARC) which has designed a comprehensive programme targeting muscle strength, kinaesthetic awareness, and neuromuscular control during static and dynamic movements to decrease injury risk for soccer players. A number of meta-analyses now exist on how effective FIFA's programmes to prevent and reduce injury actually are, with various degrees of injury reduction reported. This research aimed to carry out a systematic review and to meta analyse the existing meta-analyses so that a conclusion can be drawn on how effective the injury programmes are. Relevant studies were identified by searching five databases for the period January 1990 till 1 July 2018. Results of each meta-analysis were combined together using risk ratios (RR) in a summary meta-analysis. QUOROM checklist and AMSTAR 2 assessment were used to assess the quality of reporting and methodology in the meta-analyses. Four meta-analyses met the inclusion criteria covering fifteen primary studies. All four meta-analyses scored quite highly on QUOROM, but two were rated by AMSTAR 2 as moderate quality and two were found to be of critically low quality. An overall risk reduction of 34% [RR= 0.66 (0.60 - 0.73)] for all injuries and a reduction of 29% [RR= 0.71 (0.63 - 0.81)] for injuries to the lower limbs were revealed by this meta-analysis of meta-analyses. Combining every previous meta-analysis into a single source in this paper produced decisive evidence that the risk of injuries while playing soccer is reduced as a result of FIFA's injury prevention programmes.


#3 A comparison of a GPS device and a multi-camera video technology during official soccer matches: Agreement between systems
Reference: PLoS One. 2019 Aug 8;14(8):e0220729. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0220729. eCollection 2019.
Authors: Pons E, García-Calvo T, Resta R, Blanco H, López Del Campo R, Díaz García J, Pulido JJ
Download link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6687125/pdf/pone.0220729.pdf
Summary: The aim of this study was to compare the agreement of the movement demands data during a soccer match (total distance, distance per minute, average speed, maximum speed and distance covered in different speed sectors) between an optical tracking system (Mediacoach System) and a GPS device (Wimu Pro). Participants were twenty-six male professional soccer players (age: 21.65 ± 2.03 years; height: 180.00 ± 7.47 cm; weight: 73.81 ± 5.65 kg) from FC Barcelona B, of whom were recorded a total of 759 measurements during 38 official matches in the Spanish second division. The Mediacoach System and the Wimu Pro were compared using the standardized mean bias, standard error of estimate, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), coefficient of variation (%), and the regression equation to estimate data for each variable. In terms of agreement between systems, the magnitude of the ICC was almost perfect (> 0.90-1.00) for all variables analyzed. The coefficient of the variations between devices was close to zero (< 5%) for total distance, distance per minute, average speed, maximum speed, and walking and jogging, and between 9% and 15% for running, intense running, and sprinting at low and at high intensities. It can be observed that, compared to Wimu Pro the Mediacoach System slightly overestimated all the variables analyzed except for average speed, maximum speed, and walking variables. In conclusion, both systems can be used, and the information they provide in the analyzed variables can be interchanged, with the benefits implied for practitioners and researchers.


#4 Genomic analysis reveals association of specific SNPs with athletic performance and susceptibility to injuries in professional soccer players
Reference: J Cell Physiol. 2019 Aug 7. doi: 10.1002/jcp.29118. [Epub ahead of print]
Authors: La Montagna R, Canonico R, Alfano L, Bucci E, Boffo S, Staiano L, Fulco B, D'Andrea E, De Nicola A, Maiorano P, D'Angelo C, Chirico A, De Nicola A, Giordano A
Summary: The development of specific and individualized training programs is a possible way to improve athletic performance and minimize injuries in professional athletes. The information regarding the sport's physical demands and the athletes' physical profile have been, so far, considered as exhaustive for the design of effective training programs. However, it is currently emerging that the genetic profile has to be also taken into consideration. By merging medical and genetic data, it is thus possible to identify the athlete's specific attitude to respond to training, diet, and physical stress. In this context, we performed a study in which 30 professional soccer players, subjected to standard sport medical evaluation and practices, were also screened for genetic polymorphism in five key genes (ACTN3, COL5A1, MCT1, VEGF, and HFE). This genetic analysis represents the central point of a multidisciplinary method that can be adopted by elite soccer teams to obtain an improvement in athletic performance and a concomitant reduction of injuries by tailoring training and nutritional programs. The genetic fingerprinting of single athletes led to the identification of two performance-enhancing polymorphisms (ACTN3 18705C>T, VEGF-634C>G) significantly enriched. Moreover, we derived a genetic model based on the gene set analyzed, which was tentatively used to reduce athletes' predisposition to injuries, by dictating a personalized nutrition and training program. The potential usefulness of this approach is concordant with data showing that this team has been classified as the healthiest and least injured team in Europe while covering the highest distance/match with the highest number of high-intensity actions/match.


#5 Ten-Year Epidemiology of Ankle Injuries in Men's and Women's Collegiate Soccer Players
Reference: J Athl Train. 2019 Aug 7. doi: 10.4085/1062-6050-144-18. [Epub ahead of print]
Authors: Gulbrandsen M, Hartigan DE, Patel K, Makovicka J, Tummala S, Chhabra A
Summary: Data from the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Injury Surveillance Program (ISP) has indicated that ankle injuries are the most common injuries among NCAA soccer players. The objective was to review 10 years of NCAA-ISP data for soccer players' ankle injuries to understand how the time period (2004-2005 through 2008-2009 versus 2009-2010 through 2013-2014), anatomical structure injured, and sex of the athlete affected the injury rate, mechanism, and prognoses. The NCAA-ISP was queried for men's and women's soccer ankle data from 2004 to 2014. Ankle injury rates were calculated on the basis of injuries per 1000 athlete-exposures. Rate ratios (RRs) were used to compare injury rates. Injury proportion ratios (IPRs) were used to compare injury characteristics. When compared with the 2004-2005 through 2008-2009 seasons, the 2009-2010 through 2013-2014 seasons showed a similar rate of injuries (RR = 0.94, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.85, 1.04) but fewer days missed (P < .001) and fewer recurrent injuries (IPR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.41, 0.74). The 4 most common ankle injuries, which accounted for 95% of ankle injuries, were lateral ligament complex tears (65.67%), tibiofibular ligament (high ankle) sprains (10.3%), contusions (10.1%), and medial (deltoid) ligament tears (9.77%). Of these injuries, high ankle sprains were most likely to cause athletes to miss ≥30+ days (IPR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.24, 2.90). Men and women had similar injury rates (RR = 1.02, 95% CI = 0.94, 1.11). Men had more contact injuries (IPR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.16, 1.41) and contusion injuries (IPR = 1.34, CI = 1.03, 1.73) but fewer noncontact injuries (IPR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.78, 0.95) and lateral ligamentous complex injuries (IPR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.86, 0.98). Although the rate of ankle injuries did not change between the 2004-2005 through 2008-2009 seasons and the 2009-2010 through 2013-2014 seasons, the prognoses improved. Among the 4 most common ankle injuries, high ankle sprains resulted in the worst prognosis. Overall, male and female NCAA soccer players injured their ankles at similar rates; however, men were more likely to sustain contact injuries.


#6 Power training in elite young soccer players: Effects of using loads above or below the optimum power zone
Reference: J Sports Sci. 2019 Aug 7:1-7. doi: 10.1080/02640414.2019.1651614. [Epub ahead of print]
Authors: Loturco I, Pereira LA, Reis VP, Bishop C, Zanetti V, Alcaraz PE, Freitas TT, Mcguigan MR
Summary: This study aimed to examine the effects of two jump squat (JS) training programs involving different loading ranges in under-20 soccer players during a preseason period. Twenty-three elite young soccer players performed sprint speed (at 5-, 10-, and 20-m), change-of-direction (COD) speed, JS peak-power (PP), and countermovement jump (CMJ) tests pre and post four weeks of training. Athletes were pair-matched in two groups according to their optimum power loads (OPL) as follows: lower than OPL (LOPL; athletes who trained at a load 20% lower than the OPL) and higher than OPL (HOPL; athletes who trained at a load 20% higher than the OPL). Magnitude-based inferences were used to compare pre- and post-training measures. Meaningful increases in the PP JS were observed for both groups. Likely and possible improvements were observed in the 5- and 10-m sprint velocity in the LOPL group. Meanwhile, possible and likely improvements were observed in the CMJ, 5- and 10-m sprint velocity, and COD speed in the HOPL group. Overall, both training schemes induced positive changes in athletic performance. Soccer coaches and sport scientists can implement the JS OPL-based training schemes presented here, either separately or combined, to improve the physical performance of youth soccer players


#7 Coaches' Emotional Intelligence and Reactive Behaviors in Soccer Matches: Mediating Effects of Coach Efficacy Beliefs
Reference: Front Psychol. 2019 Jul 10;10:1629. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01629. eCollection 2019.
Authors: Teques P, Duarte D, Viana J
Download link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6647934/pdf/fpsyg-10-01629.pdf
Summary: In the last 10 years, emotional intelligence (EI) has become a current issue of research in psychology, and there are indicators to consider that EI should be analyzed to help the coach to behave effectively during competitions. According to Boardley's (2018) revised model of coaching efficacy, coaches' EI is predictive of their efficacy beliefs, which, in turn, is predictive of coaching behavior. However, little is known about the mediating effects of coaching efficacy dimensions on the relationships between coach's EI and reactive behaviors in competitive settings. Thus, the purpose of this study is to examine mediating effects of coaching efficacy dimensions on the relationship between EI and coaches' reactive behaviors during a game using a multimethod approach. Participants were 258 coaches of youth football players aged 9 to 17 years old. Observations in situ using Coaching Behavior Assessment System (CBAS) were carried on 258 football games during two seasons. At the end of each game, coaches completed the Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale (WLEIS) and the Coaching Efficacy Scale (CES). Structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses revealed that motivation efficacy and character building mediated the relationship between regulation of emotion and positive and negative coaches' reactions during game. Specifically, motivation efficacy mediated the association between regulation of emotion and positive coaches' reactions, and the relationship between regulation of emotion and negative coaches' reactions were mediated by motivation efficacy and character building. In addition, coaching level moderated the relationships between EI, self-efficacy and coaches' reactive behaviors. Findings of the present study showed that coaching efficacy dimensions (i.e., motivation efficacy and character building) that have the capacity to influence their confidence in ability to affect the psychological mood and positive attitude of athletes, transfer the effects of EI (i.e., regulation of emotion) on coaches' verbal reactions during a youth soccer game. Specifically, a coach who feels competent to regulate their own emotions would perceive high beliefs of efficacy to motivate and to build character of their athletes, and this insight has an impact on their positive verbal reactions in response to athletes' performances.


#8 Ratings of perceived recovery and exertion in elite youth soccer players: Interchangeability of 10-point and 100-point scales
Reference: Physiol Behav. 2019 Aug 1;210:112641. doi: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2019.112641. [Epub ahead of print]
Authors: Clemente FM, Rabbani A, Araújo JP
Summary: The purpose of this study was to examine the interchangeability of a new perceived recovery status scale (PRS) of 100 points through a comparison to the original 10-point version. This study also aimed to test the interchangeability of CR100 scale (Borg's rate of perceived exertion scale) in comparison to the CR10. Twenty-five male elite youth soccer players (age: 18.0 ± 0.5 years old; body mass: 70.1 ± 6.7 kg; height: 177.8 ± 6.5 cm; experience: 11.7 ± 1.2 years) from the same team competing in the first national under-19 competition participated in this study. During two consecutive weeks, the players completed PRS (both 10- and 100-points) and CR10 and CR100 scales. Nearly perfect relationships were observed between 0-to-10 and 0-to-100 scales, both for recovery status (r = 0.96, confidence interval [0.95;0.97]) and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) (r = 0.97 [0.97;0.98]). Moreover, almost 95% of individuals showed nearly-perfect-to-perfect associations between 0-to-10 and 0-to100 in terms of RPE and recovery scales. Both a PRS of 100 points and CR100 can be used interchangeably with a PRS of 10 points and CR10, respectively.


#9 Inter-rater Reliability in Assessing Exercise Fidelity for the Injury Prevention Exercise Programme Knee Control in Youth Football Players
Reference: Sports Med Open. 2019 Aug 7;5(1):35. doi: 10.1186/s40798-019-0209-9.
Authors: Ljunggren G, Perera NKP, Hägglund M
Download link: https://sportsmedicine-open.springeropen.com/track/pdf/10.1186/s40798-019-0209-9
Summary: To receive maximum benefits from injury prevention exercise programmes (IPEP) such as Knee Control, players need to perform the exercises as prescribed. But, exercise fidelity in IPEPs is seldom evaluated. We developed a checklist to assess exercise fidelity in the Knee Control IPEP, and the primary aim was to evaluate its inter-rater reliability. The secondary aim was to study Knee Control exercise fidelity in youth football players and compare sex differences. This observational study included 11 teams with male and female youth players (11-18 years). On average, the players trained with the Knee Control IPEP for 7 weeks (SD 1.4, range 6-10 weeks). After the training period, two physiotherapists attended a team training session to observe players executing exercises and individually assessed their performance of these exercises as correct or incorrect based on standardised criteria set in the fidelity checklist. Agreement between observers was assessed using Cohen's kappa coefficient. The observers agreed on 144 out of 160 (90%) observations (Kappa = 0.80, substantial agreement). Both observers agreed on correct exercise performance for 69 out of 144 observations (exercise fidelity 48%). Exercise fidelity was higher in females (56%) than males (40%), but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.18). The Knee Control exercise fidelity checklist had high inter-rater reliability with substantial agreement. The exercise fidelity was low, which could hamper the preventive effects of an IPEP. Understanding the reasons for low exercise fidelity is important and more effort should focus on increasing exercise fidelity alongside the implementation of IPEPs.


#10 Effects of Linear Versus Changes of Direction Repeated Sprints on Intermittent High Intensity Running Performance in High-level Junior Football Players over an Entire Season: A Randomized Trial
Reference: Sports (Basel). 2019 Aug 6;7(8). pii: E189. doi: 10.3390/sports7080189.
Authors: Sagelv EH, Selnæs I, Pedersen S, Pettersen SA, Randers MB, Welde B
Summary: Changes of direction (COD) repeated sprints (RSs) might have greater relevance to football than linear RSs. We aimed to compare the effects of linear and COD RSs on intermittent high intensity running (HIR) over an entire season. In total, 19 high-level male football players (16-19 years) randomly performed linear RSs or COD RSs twice a week during their competitive season over 22 weeks. Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 2 (Yo-Yo IR2), and 10- and 20-m sprint was assessed pre-, mid- (11 weeks), and post-intervention (22 weeks). Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) was assessed pre- and post-intervention. There was no interaction effect (time x group) in Yo-Yo IR2 (p = 0.36, pη2 = 0.06) or sprint tests (10 m: p = 0.55, pη2 = 0.04, 20 m: p = 0.28 pη2 = 0.08), and no change differences between groups. There was a main effect of time for Yo-Yo IR2 (p = 0.002, pη2 = 0.31) but not in sprints or VO2max. Linear and COD RS exercise twice a week over 22 weeks equally improves intermittent HIR performance but does not improve sprint time or aerobic power in high-level junior football players. However, due to our two-armed intervention, we cannot exclude possible effects from other exercise components in the players' exercise program.


#11 Rescheduling Part 2 of the 11+ reduces injury burden and increases compliance in semi-professional football
Reference: Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2019 Aug 3. doi: 10.1111/sms.13532. [Epub ahead of print]
Authors: Whalan M, Lovell R, Steele JR, Sampson JA
Summary: Although the 11+ programme has been shown to reduce injuries in sub-elite football, programme compliance is typically poor, suggesting that strategies to optimize delivery are necessary. This study investigated the effect of rescheduling Part 2 of the three-part 11+ programme on programme effectiveness. Twenty-five semi-professional football clubs were randomly allocated to either a Standard-11+ (n=398 players) or P2post group (n=408 players). Both groups performed the 11+ programme at least twice a week throughout the 2017 football season. The Standard-11+ group performed the entire 11+ programme before training activities commenced, whereas the P2post group performed Parts 1 and 3 of the 11+ programme before and Part 2 after training. Injuries, exposure and individual player 11+ dose were monitored throughout the season. No significant between group difference in injury incidence rate (P2post vs Standard-11+ = 11.8 vs 12.3 injuries/1000 h) was observed. Severe time loss injuries >28 days (33 vs 58 injuries; p<0.002) and total days lost to injury (4303 vs 5815 days; p<0.001) were lower in the P2post group. A higher 11+ programme dose was observed in the P2post (29.1 doses; 95% CI 27.9-30.1) versus Standard-11+ group (18.9 doses; 95% CI 17.6 -20.2; p<0.001). In semi-professional football, rescheduling Part 2 of the 11+ programme to the end of training maintained the effectiveness of the original 11+ programme to reduce injury incidence. Importantly, rescheduling Part 2 improved player compliance and reduced the number of severe injuries and total injury burden thereby enhancing effectiveness of the 11+ programm


#12 Performance Activities and Match Outcomes of Professional Soccer Teams during the 2016/2017 Serie A Season
Reference: Medicina (Kaunas). 2019 Aug 12;55(8). pii: E469. doi: 10.3390/medicina55080469.
Authors: Longo UG, Sofi F, Candela V, Dinu M, Cimmino M, Massaroni C, Schena E, Denaro V
Download link: https://www.mdpi.com/1010-660X/55/8/469/pdf
Summary: Soccer is the most popular sport in the world. To describe athletic performance, match statistics, and their relationships with the probability of achieving the first positions of the final ranking in the Italian football league "Serie A", season 2016/2017. Analyses comprised all the matches played by the 20 teams of the "Serie A" championship during the season 2016-2017. Indicators of athletic performance (total distance covered in km, jogging, running and sprint activities, and average speed) and match statistics (total shots, shots on target, goal attempts, assists, turnovers, and steals) were obtained from the Italian football league. Analyses of performance activities according to the final ranking showed no significant differences for the total distance covered and speed, while a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) among teams was observed for jogging, running and sprint activities. In regard to match statistics, all the parameters investigated were significantly different among the teams. By grouping teams into four subgroups (those who qualified for the Champions League, those who qualified for the Europe League, those who ranked intermediate positions and those who relegated from the "Serie A" league), the percentage of jogging, running and sprint activities, as well as match statistics were significantly different among groups, with a downward trend for total shots, shots on target, goal attempts, assists, and turnovers. The logistic regression analysis revealed that sprint activities as well as total shots, shots on target, goal attempts, and assists higher than the 3rd tertile of their distribution were associated with a higher probability of reaching the first three positions of the final ranking. An increased probability to achieve the first positions of the final ranking in the Italian football league "Serie A" seemed to be mainly related to sprint activity, goal attempts, total shots, shots on target and assists.


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